Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Look Under Description

With vast referencing to Allah in the various stories compiling The Arabian Nights, comparison of story to the teachings of the Quran are a warranted article for evaluation.   In the introductory story, Story of King Shahryar and His Brother, the King discovers his wife to be an adulteress and decides to bestow upon her punishment by execution. With his brother having suffered the same through the actions of his own wife, the king concludes that all women are not to be trusted and that the world would benefit through having a fewer number of them.   As a result of this resolve, he commits to marrying one virgin a night, taking her to his bed, and then having her killed in the morning.   This practice continues for years.   Sura 24, Al-NÃ… «r, of the Quran offers an excellent foundation to discover if the actions in the story coincide with the codes of conduct taught in Islam with respect to women’s role in marriage and in society. Systematically reviewing the Sura, one may conclude that no definitive variation is stated between women’s societal role and that of men.   However, her role of being a woman and what that means in respect to protecting herself and her chastity is addressed.   Instruction is given to men to â€Å"restrain their looks and guard their senses† (24:31-32).   This instruction is given also to women, with the addition of hiding their beauty and adornments from those outside of specified individuals, stating that the beauty and adornments of a woman are reserved for her husband. They are not to be concerned with showing themselves to those who either are too young to understand the relationship between man and woman, or individuals outside of the family who have no desire for women (24:31-32).   In the Story of King Shahryar and His Brother, the king’s wives are spoken of as being beautiful.   It does not make reference to how they are dressed, but the impression is made that they are not covered as instructed by the Quran.   This is not to suggest that the failure to cover is cause for their demise, but a simple observation. The actions of the younger brother, King of Samarkand, are an obvious and blatant rebellion against Islamic rule in accordance to Sura 24.   While the witnessing of a wife committing adultery by the husband alone is evidence for punishment, he must â€Å"bear witness four times in the name of Allah that he is telling the truth, and a fifth time that Allah’s curse be upon him if he lies† (24:7-11).   This younger brother took it upon himself to kill his wife, and mentioned nothing of the situation to anyone until he spoke of it to his brother some time later.   Though the eldest King, King Shahryar, was not the sole witness to his wife’s sin, his punishment of murder is not the instructed penalty. However, it is not this murder, but the many that took place daily thereafter, in conjunction with the terms of arrangement, which pose such a contradiction to Sura 24.   A man and a woman are to be arranged in marriage (24:33-35).   Again, this reflects equality between the sexes, as both are under the same instruction.   In the story, this arranged marriage is seen routinely between the King and his nightly bride.   The difference being that in the story, these women were given to him out of fear by their families.   This marriage arrangement was by the king more so than by the woman’s controlling figures. There are similarities between Story of King Shahryar and His Brother and the Quran, however, the differences are more severe.   It would be an act of ignorance to take any of the stories from The Arabian Nights and use them as an indicator of Islam and the teachings of the Quran.   This story did not accurately reflect what a marriage is in Islam, nor did it make reference to a woman’s role either in marriage, in society, or in self.   The story depicts a woman as somebody who can be assigned and given away much in the way you would assign or give away material property.   Such a story does not echo the lessons of Islam found Sura 24, or of Islam as a whole. References Burton, R. (1850). The Arabian Nights Khan, MZ. (1997) The Qur’an: Arabic text with a new translation by Muhammad Zafrulla KhanI. Brooklyn: Olive Branch Press

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Panera Bread Company: Still Rising Fortunes? Essay

Panera Bread is a renowned restaurant that has come about from the merging of great companies and people. However, the beginning was actually with Au Bon Pain which was started in Boston’s Feneuil Hall as a demonstration bakery. Louis Kane was struck by this store’s growth potential and purchased the business in 1978. Between 1978 and 1981 the company opened 13 stores, but subsequently closed 10 of these stores, in the Boston area and had major debt. Ronald Shaich, a recent graduate from Harvard, opened the Cookie Jar in 1980 and befriended Louis Kane. In 1981, the friends merged the Au Bon Pain and the Cookie Jar to form one business known as Au Bon Pain Co. Inc. The co-CEO’s were able to lower debt, expand the business, and centralized facilities for dough production. In 1985, the company added fresh made sandwiches to their production when they noticed customer behavior of purchasing a baguette cut in half and using cold cuts brought from home to make sandwich es. This allowed for a new way to reach customers with fast service, all the while staying nutritious. Panera opened in three business segments: company owned bakery-cafà © operations, franchise operations, and fresh dough operations. The key initiatives of Panera’s growth was focused on growing store profit, increasing transaction and gross profit per transaction, use its capital smartly, and put in place drivers for concept differentiation and competitive advantage. During the recession, while other companies were lowering pricing and quality of goods, Panera was doing the opposite. The company instead targeted customer who could afford to spend an average of $8.50 on lunch. So during 2009, the company raised prices twice, on bagels and soups, which enabled the company to provide more for less. This attitude also allowed the company to maintain employees and customer satisfaction. By keeping labor consistent with sales and continuing to invest in its employees as a way to better serve its customers. In 2009, Panera had sales of nearly $2.8 billion and was ranked as the large st fast casual chain. Panera learned from its competitors, none of those competitors had yet to figure out the formula for Panera’s success. Panera has continued to add new and exciting products to its menu and strive to meet the expectations of its customers, and this included the new breakfast sandwiches introduced in 2008. The menu was redesigned and its menu boards with the hope of drawing the customer eye to the highest margin items. These new menus also included the calorie information for items in 2010, well  before any other company did so. The company has been able to anticipate and react to changes in food and supply costs, included fuel, proteins, dairy, wheat, tuna, and cream cheese in effort to drive gross profit per transaction. Resources: When dealing with resources there a few that jump out such as: Panera’s intellectual capital, its financial position, and the executives. Each of these resources enable the company to grow and provide service to customers while maintaining their current standards. Panera has been able to see their company continue to generate profits, keep employees working, and grow the company. Since the company is so good to their employees and franchisees, these employees are eager to maintain quality, which in turn leads to more loyal customers. Panera realized that the key ingredient was the kind of people behind the counter who provides the customer service. Because the company is maintaining quality, which includes freshness and nutrition this allows the customers to choose this casual fast food location for a much better meal. Since the company is doing well financially, they are able to continue expanding, which leads to more jobs and potential for the areas surrounding the store. Th is in turn enables the company to maintain their financial position and continue to invest in new ventures. Capabilities: Panera offers a great value on their products. This healthy option offers a number of varieties which enable customers to get anything from soup to pastries. Since trends are always changing, Panera does a good job in changing their menu to keep with customer demands. This ever changing menu has offerings to satisfy changing customer preferences, improve its products, and maintain customer interest. By maintaining the customer interest in its menu items Panera must continue to do research and develop new goods. As Panera doesn’t have a test kitchen, these items are instead tested these items out directly in the cafà ©s. The research and development team have twice yearly retreats that allow these team members to â€Å"out do† each other with their creations. Panera has also been able to negotiate the real estate locations so that be actually favors the company. This is also true with the ordering food products and other goods. Most of these companies will offer discoun ts on goods due to the name recognition and  stability of the company when others are failing. Core Competencies: When looking into core competencies Panera has proven and developed many of these. The goal in the beginning was to sell high quality food with a mid-price level. Panera has since exceeded the goal and customer expectations in the casual fast food category. The company continues to maintain these expectations by having fresh dough distribution centers in regional areas. This provides the product quickly and allows for faster use which keeps the product fresher for customers. While Panera strives to maintain these standards, the company also reaches out to the surrounding community by giving away left over bread to homeless shelters and collects donations for other charities. Panera also believes in providing bakery-cafà © operators the chance to participate in the success of the location, which enable the company to attract and maintain experienced and highly qualified personnel. Findings of Fact: Franchising a Key to Success: Franchising is a key component in the growth that Panera has experienced. Since a franchisee is purchasing the use of the Panera name, this means that they are also purchasing the business model and trademark for their location. This allows the company to grow quickly and the franchisee contributes the resources and capabilities necessary to implement the Panera concepts and strategies. The franchise program began in 1996, and as of December 2009 there are 795 franchise-operated bakery-cafà ©s open throughout the US and Canada. There are also commitments to open another 240 additional locations. Panera sells locations via the Area Development Agreements (ADAs) and the franchisee must be able to meet financial requirements set forth by Panera. The strategic choice perspective, which proposes that not only does the company adapt to changing environments, but they also have the opportunity and power to reshape their own environment, means that Panera is able to draw customers who can a fford to spend a little more. By opening franchises across the country, the company is reaching for a functional strategy by achieving corporate and business unit objects. By implementing the strategy that each franchisee must open a set amount of locations within their development area can allow the company to expand and reach a greater  amount of customers. In 2009, 57.6% of the company’s bakery-cafà ©s were owned by franchises comprised of 48 franchise groups. Panera does not facilitate the construction or development of the area where a location will be built. Franchising is a great way for Panera to enter new markets with little to no cost to the company. This can be seen with how Panera moved into the Canadian market. Panera entered into a credit facility with a Canadian franchisee and in March 2010, Panera had repurchased the locations in order to be more directly involved in the new Canadian market. By implementing ways for franchisees to continue to expand and generate more sales Panera would be able to lower some of the standards set to become a franchisee and this would allow for more opportunities for growth both inside and outsid e of the US and Canada. Quality and Concept Different from Competitors: Facing competition from numerous sources in its trade area means that Panera has to offer something unique. This means that Panera offers something different, such as fresh-baked artisan breads, fresh sandwiches, soups, and salads without worrying about whether it was nutritious. The unique dining experience to customers, combined with nutritious food and fast service keep customers coming back. The friendly atmosphere, which includes comfortable seating, warm tones, and convenient locations can offer customers a better option to be able to hang out and possibly spend more money. Panera handles this obstacle by offering specialty food, casual dining, and quick service cafà ©s. However, competitive factors include location, environment, customer service, price, and quality of products. This means that Panera competes for the best locations, hourly employees, and customers. The corporate culture within Panera has always been a collection of beliefs, expectations, and values learned an d shared by the company employees. This results in employees striving to be the best that they can be when offering quality service and products. There are competitors who have begun to test the concept of â€Å"upscale† dining, may also test the health and wellness or sustainability component that could be included. By being able to maintain their core beliefs such as no chemicals or preservatives, the company is able to bring customers back to simpler times and provide good, quality food. Since Panera is able to  dedicate themselves to their concept the company has enjoyed brand loyalty, positive name recognition, and goodwill. Since Panera operated on three business segments such as company-owned bakery-cafà © operations, franchise operations, and fresh dough operations the company is able to keep a better feel for those segments and maintain standards. Panera was able to extend its strong values in unpretentious ways in a welcoming atmosphere. Locations were often donating bread and baked goods to community organizations in need which showed that they were involved in bettering their community. By ensuring that Panera sets the standards that competitors much strive to reach, the goal is to find a propitious niche, such as the casual fast food dining experience with specialty foods. Financial Growth Panera reported a 48% increase in net income of $25,845 million during the first quarter of 2010. Panera believed that its primary capital resource was cash generated by operations. The principle requirements for cash have resulted in the company’s capital expenditures for the development of new company owned bakery-cafà ©s. By putting this capital to work for the company, such as purchasing new equipment, remodeling locations, or other needs such as enhancements to information systems or infrastructure, will be able to maintain standards for products. The company has access to a $250 million credit facility, which as of December 2009, had to borrowings outstanding. Panera will be able to use its cash flow from operations and available borrowing under its existing credit facility will be sufficient to fund its capital requirements for the foreseeable future. Panera should continue to invest in training, labor, and quality products. Panera was able to increase costs, which resulted in better products while other competitors were cutting costs, and this resulted in a more loyal customer. The company should continue to increase performance and be able to increase stock prices. The franchise agreements also provide a source of income when fees are due. These royalties and fees in fiscal year 2009 were up and with the franchisee opening more locations that should continue to grow. Finding ways to provide quality products at a mid-level cost to the customer will continue to ensure that Panera will continue to see growth in the future. Panera should begin to spend some of the capital on marketing.  Although most of the marketing has been done by word of mouth, there is no reason why the company couldn’t do some advertising. This would increase customer knowledge and traffic within the locations. Overall Panera Bread Co. Inc. is a stable company which has continued to grow as other competitors scaled back in the recent recession. Panera offers quality food, customer service, and a welcoming environment which some other competitors do not offer. By offering this type of arrangement for customers, it encourages more spending and allows customers to take their time while getting their meals faster. Being a national leader in business can allow the company to meet obligations and ensure that the capital will continue to grow. Panera will continue to set standards and strive to meet them every day. Works Cited Wheelen, Thomas L. and J. David Hunger. Strategic Management & Business Policy. 12th Edition. Boston: Pearson. 2012. Print

Editing on Requiem for a Dream Essay

This essay will be, in the first part, mainly talking about the role of film editors in the modern film industry, while during the second, presenting a complex of creative editing techniques the editor used in the film requiem for a dream, to further demonstrate the former topic. For quite long, film editors are deemed as people who do nothing more than cutting the film apart, taping them back together and threading them onto a Moviola. The common-sense views of the job of a film editor, therefore, seem to be naively oversimplified. To be sure, the editing work can be incredibly tedious in a way. It involves viewing miles of footage for hours over and over again and turning them into a coherent and enjoyable whole that will bring sound and sight together artfully to convey the director’s vision. The difficulties of the work, according to that definition, are hard to miss, which is what happens in between the art of editing. Firstly, as an editor, you need to not only know the art, the business and the technology at the same time, but also be well adept at all. Secondly, even though the magic is in your wand and curses to make the final story come to life, you cannot cross that line between a conveyer and a manipulator. After all, it is the director that â€Å"rules†. Thirdly, it means you have to stand the long and tiring hours of working in isolation. Yet you also have to work closely in collaboration with others such as the sound editors and musical directors as the film nears completion. Walter Murch, a preeminent Hollywood film editor, who has won the golden statue for three times, worldly-renowned for his masterful editing work in the English patient and the cold mountain, describes a film editor as a cross between a short-order cook and a brain surgeon. To rephrase his words, film editing requires the capability to do really delicate jobs to mainly assure the continuity of the movie, but also the routine ones—-cutting and assembling, just like a short-order cook flipping the burger. Editors are the invisible man whose wonderful work somehow often goes unnoticed while the general public perception grants way too much credit on the directors and actors. Indeed, they are undoubtedly essential to the play as a whole, but the editor, the dark artist who makes all the broken pieces into their best shape is indisputably no lesser in importance than either of them. Moreover, in some films, the role an editor plays can be so critical that it defines the overall style of the entire film. In the following part, I will try to illustrate this point by looking into the various creative editing techniques the editor of requiem for a dream employed to make the film a stylistic one as it is. The first and foremost editing technique is the one that runs through the entire film, termed as â€Å"hip-hop montage† by Darren Aronofsky, the director of this movie. It is a subset of fast cutting used in film to portray a complex action through a rapid series of simple actions in fast motion, accompanied by sound effects. One example is the recurring scene in which Harry, Tyrone and Marion shoot or snort the heroine in the room. A fast set of shots encompassing the movement of body cells, the magnification of pupils, the cutting of dollar note, the ignition of lighter, the sound of moan are put together swiftly and seamlessly, followed by the fast motion of their after-drug activities. This happens regularly throughout the film primarily to imply the frequency of such behaviors, and the fast motion followed simply indicates how boring and senseless these people are as if those reactions can be ignored. Fast motion editing is another one that used by the editor quite often in the film, usually trying to imply the high frequency of the action or, not to bore the audience with the routine and tedious scenes as long as they understand what is going on. Respective examples are when the mother Sara takes the pills every single time and when she does the housework afterwards. The fraction of the doctor-patient sequence is rather unique in such a way that a contrast of fast motion(doctor) and slow motion(mother) are brought together in the same shots, causing a distinctive yet unspeakable feeling to the audience. Split screen editing is used extensively as well, along with extreme close-ups. The most illustrative one is a set of shots where Harry and Marion caress each other on the bed. The screen is equally split into two parts with the left side on Harry and the other half on Marion. The reason this scene is carried out in this way is because it manifestly shows us the places on each character that the other person is focused on. At this romantic and somewhat psychedelic moment, they both lose a sense of self and are enraptured by their lover. The visual representation of this has to be split since an attempt to convey this in one shot would feel slightly cluttered and in disarray. Another editing/ shooting technique well-worth-mentioning, is the long take used in the film where Marion walks out from her psychiatrist’s place after having sex with him only in exchange for money—-from the doorway, all the way to the elevator, down to the gate, out to the street, then the rain falls and Marion pukes. To observe in more depth, you will find the usage of â€Å"dissolve†. The dissolve appears in the story when Sara dances weirdly and ghostly in her dark bedroom with the red dress partially on her plump body and the nearly scary makeup on her pale-white face. The dissolve allows the appearance of multiple images of Sara at the same time on the screen with different degrees of transparency, thus creating a creepy and spooky ambiance. In addition to all those mentioned above, there is a shot in which the conversations match in two shots with different locations and time yet the same people. The matching of conversation is between Marion and her psychiatrist. The last shot of the first scene is in the restaurant where Marion says â€Å"I need some money† and the first shot of the next scene is on the bed with the psychiatrist saying â€Å"May I ask what it’s for†. This is incredibly coherent while controlling the pace very well. To end this essay, Stephen Kings once says: To write is human, to edit is divine. From this quotation and the analysis above of the role of an editor as well as the in-depth exploration into requiem for a dream, we can at least paint a closer-to-reality profile of an editor and in the meantime gain deeper understandings of the crucial work he/ she does in delivering a masterpiece film.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Mobile Computing and Mobile Computing Security Essay

Mobile Computing and Mobile Computing Security - Essay Example Today, a whole variety of 'mobile computing platforms' such as in-dash VGA displays and automobile computers which feature a variety of applications and functions such as global positioning systems (GPS) and radar detection systems are available for the mass market ("Mobile computing", 2006). Some mobile computing devices use WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) as their means to communicate and acquire data. A WLAN is a LAN (Local Area Network) connected through radio or other wireless means. One of the advantages of using a WLAN is the flexibility it offers to overcome restrictions of physically connected networks to space restrictions. It is easy, wire-free and simple to use. WLAN allows data access without having to "jack-in" or plug to a wired network (Shriraghavan et al, 2003). Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) transmits and receives data through fixed line network called access points. An area called a "hotspot" results from the area covered by each of the access points. Each access point serves numerous subscribers and they alter their 'access points' as they transfer from one point to another. As the number of access points in a WLAN increases, the size of the network also increases (Shriraghavan et al, 2003). Satellite Networks This type of network uses communications satellites acting as central points for transferring data. The subscriber uses a 'satellite dish antenna and a transceiver to transmit and receive data'. This network is usually a better alternative for rural areas where 'broadband, DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) and cable television' systems are not accessible (Shriraghavan et al, 2003). Cellular Networks The advent of mobile phones or cellular phones ushered in the creation of cellular networks. A cellular network operates by serving different frequencies or bands to handle calls and other services such as short message service (SMS). A cell site is commonly composed of 3 basic parts: a control unit, a receiver and a transmitter connected to a Mobile Telecommunications Center that is also interconnected with the public telephone systems (Shriraghavan et al, 2003). Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks An ad-hoc network results from the creation of several small nodes or "motes", tiny powered self-contained computers that are linked through radio around a small area. Motes are capable of communicating and exchanging data with each other over short distances and are usually formed temporarily. Ad hoc networks are common and have several practical military applications (Shriraghavan et al, 2003). Mobile Devices Mobile devices could include the following: Laptop computers, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and handheld PCs, Pagers and cellular phones and task devices, such as bar code scanners. Laptops, PDAs and portable handheld PCs are computing devices that can run a number of programs and applications for every sort of business, enterprise and more recently for the modern home. Laptops are basically portable versions of personal computers (PCs) which equal or even rival the computing power of modern desktop units. They are similarly supported by their manufacturers in the

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Discussion Board Post Response Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 11

Discussion Board Post Response - Essay Example For instance, you have posited that if your organization wants to improve a specific indicator, then it may look at a particular organization that is experiencing significant success with that indicator over time. In my organization, benchmarking is used to help improve competitiveness through replicating best practices adopted from other top performing organizations. Your discussion gives more insight on how benchmarking can be conducted using national guidelines as a reference or source. For instance, there are credible national guidelines for all care processes and these are used in the accreditation process. For an institution to be accredited, all the requirements necessitated by the accreditation bodies must be achieved (Kay, 2007). Using the national guidelines as a benchmark can ensure provision of highest level of standards as there is no need to worry of risks since national standards are a credible source. Processes that fail to meet the required standards can also be identified through data analysis and hence strategies for improvements formulated and implemented (Kay, 2007). There is however some issues that need to be addressed in your discussion. For instance, your discussion has not explicated the potential risks of using non-credible sources as the basis for benchmarking. Since you work for the Veteran Administration, it would be interesting to find out how benchmarking using non-credible sources as the basis would impact your

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Data Analyses Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Data Analyses - Research Paper Example Almost 95 % a vast majority turned out to be as a full time student with only 5 % studying as part time students. When question was asked regarding their drinking habit on campus 48 respondents out of 58 said that they don’t drink on campus however 9 respondents said they rarely drink on campus where as only 1 respondent said that he/she drink occasionally. When respondents were asked regarding bar on campus and how would it affect the school’s social atmosphere and help in reducing the stress amongst students? The answers were of split nature few endorsing it few going against it and few chose air of finality or stayed neutral. The facts and figures regarding this question are, 17 respondents strongly opposing the idea of campus on bar on the other hand 11 respondents were strongly supporting this idea. Furthermore 6 respondents believe that its impacts would not turn out to be fruitful so they opposed it by demonstrating and marking no in questionnaire however 20.7 % (12 respondents) were unsure so they remained neutral. The final 12 respondents out of 58 were confident that bar on campus will help students to reduce stress and there is no harm in it. 16 students out of 58 were confident about allowing 2 drinks per day which also makes them majority, however 15 respondents believe that only one drink should be allowed per day, 11 respondents have different ideas they believe that this intake should be raise up to 3 drinks per day while 13 respondents were against all restriction claiming that there should be no limit on drinking per day for students. There were quite a few alternatives that come across while performing research. The first and foremost was that the school should focus on promoting sports and other extracurricular activities rather than opening bar on campus as this will shift students focus towards other things, another alternative was regarding

Friday, July 26, 2019

Final Exam Questions Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Final Exam Questions - Assignment Example social, economic and environment. While assessing whether a program is sustainable the three dimensions should be considered with a view of determining the program’s social impacts, its effects on the environment as well as its economic benefits. A sustainable program therefore is one whose economic benefits are real, is environment friendly and does not elicit social and cultural conflicts. Anthropocene- This term is derived from anthropo which means man and cene which means new. The term is therefore is used in reference to the fact that human activities have impact to a great extent the major systems. Man for instance through deforestation, industrialization and urbanization has heavily polluted the environment and caused global warming with resultant disappearance of some ecosystems as well as extinction of certain life species. As population increases consumption also increases and so does the impacts. Earth Systems Engineering and Management – This is the ability of designing, engineering and managing by employing dialog and relying on constant feedback. It involves integrating both built and natural systems with the intention of achieving mutuality in terms of human goals which include environmental considerations, technological, economic and even personal desires while staying within the confines placed by nations and the adaptive systems that exist. Engineering programs must thus serve economic goals while considering the environment and social well being of humanity. ESEM projects usually come with critical concerns ranging from economic, scientific, technologic, theoretical, ethical, and technical to political ones. Governance of these projects therefore requires genuine democracy, transparency and accountability. The energy committee in the senate therefore while formulating policies to govern fuel standards in the United States must ensure inclusivity and embrace dialog in a multicultural style. There must be appreciation

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Walt Disney and Customer Relationship Marketing Research Paper

Walt Disney and Customer Relationship Marketing - Research Paper Example The theme parks are one of the most preferred attractions with every park exhibiting different appeal and feeling. The Magic Kingdom is based on the structure of Cinderella Castle, Epcot exhibits the structure of Spaceship Earth, Disney’s Hollywood Studio is based on the structure of the Sorcerer’s Hat and the Disney Animal Kingdom looks like the Tree of Life. It can be assumed that with different structure and appeal, Disney has been successful in attracting different customers and can be considered as a good strategy (Koenig, David (2007). However, with things settling down, same attracting structures need to add value in terms of keeping the feeling of being attracted alive. The discussion aims at highlighting the customer relationship management practices of Disney along with developing and designing new practices to address key issues like sliding attendance figures of employees and decreasing revenues along with customer’s shift of attention towards other recreational activities in the absence of innovative CRM practices. Customer relationship management is considered one of the most important management tools enhancing business prospects by earning the loyalty and trust of customers for a long period of time. The study is based on the customer relationship management practices of Disney that offered great presence, reach and acceptance in the past. However, with the change in the social and demographic factors embedded with customer preferences; Disney is facing new challenges in the form of customer turnoffs, less customer attendance and decline in the interest and urges to visit the park. The customer relationship management of the organization has been quite commendable considering the high pressure in the service industry. It included the balanced mixture of technology interfaces and human interfaces but issues were not addressed and answered creating a need for another CRM practices or program with better prospects and feasibility.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Storm Drainage Design Project and Flooding Assignment

Storm Drainage Design Project and Flooding - Assignment Example Surface streams and groundwater flows and the wetness of soil before a the storm are the factors to be considered. According to Dr Tim Stott, rainfall prediction is a matter of statistics. No one can predict what the rainfall and catchment conditions will be in the future. With climate change, past records are not reliable for future references. Engineering design will be based on specified probability storm and the runoff generated by catchments In the hydrographs of Cynon River, there was an almost steady flow of water in the river for the first 40 hours. As the height of water start to rise on the 42nd hour, water had a abrupt rise and on the 44th hour the water temporarily had a constant flow and began rising again on the 48th hour. The rise was constantly rising until it reached the peak flow and it was recorded to be 0.65m above the river bed and the rainfall recorded at 1.2mm. In the analyses of the river hydrograph, the rise of water is faster than when it starts to subside. It would take more time to subside, and having a steady downward motion. There are factors that control the shape of hydrographs. The typical shape are shown and the main components are labeled according to Weyman (1975). A hydrograph would show the difference between the peak rainfall from the peak discharge. This is known as the lag time. Then a lag time is greater, there is less chance of flooding whereas a short lag time will show that water had reached the river channel quickly. The rise in discharge or rainfall as shown in the graph is called the rising limb and the decrease in rainfall is the falling limb. There are several factors that affect a flood hydrograph. Areas with large basins receive more precipitation that the small ones and they have a larger run-off(Hoyt, 1936) Larger basins will have a longer lag time as water has a longer distance to travel before it can reach the river trunk. According to Gillesania, 2006, the shape of the basin which is typically elongated, would produce a lower peak flow and longer lag time than a circular one. The effect of the slope is also very important. The flow will be faster down a steep slope, thus producing a steeper rising limb and shorter lag time. Channel design Given Data Note: Given the discharge in the channel, apply the the Manning Q = 1.5 m3/s formula to get a suitable breadth b, of a channel with n = 0.019 depth d S = 1/2500 = 0.0004 d = 0.6 Formula to be used V = where: v = velocity Q = Av R = Hydraulic Radius Q = A S = slope A = bd n = Manning's coefficient R = Q = discharge Computations: A = db = 0.6(b) Q = A R = 1.5 = 0.6b 1.5(0.019) = 0.6b 0.0285 = 0.6b = 0.6 1.425 = 0.6 = 2.375 = (2.375)3 = b3 13.3964 = 13.3964 = 13.3964(1.44 + 2.4b + b2) = 0.36b5 19.2908 + 32.1513b + 13.3964b2 = 0.36b5 19.2908 + 32.1513b + 13.3964b2 - 0.36b5 = 0 b = 3.9798 m. The discharge flow of the river is also to be computed. The computation is necessary because a comparison will have to be made in order to determine

Juvenile Probation system Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Juvenile Probation system - Essay Example Probation system is the means through which the juvenile court system ensures its purpose is achieved. The juvenile court guides juveniles considered to be a status offender or delinquent. The system works through probation officers who inform the juvenile court of appropriate steps to take (Torbet, 1996; Whitehead & Lab, 2012). The judge makes a decision on what conditions to include in the probation based on information provided by the probation officer. Probation may be used in three ways: It can be adjudication to a first time low risk offender, in which case it is used at the front end. It can be used in placement of a formal settlement if a youth agrees to comply with a period of informal probation, and it can be used at the back end of the system where it serves as a replacement to institutional confinement for more serious offenders (Torbet, 1996). Juvenile Probation System Creation The juvenile probation system is an evolution of the court and juvenile justice system, as a m eans of differentiating the adult criminals from the young lawbreakers. It was found that the institutions meant correct behaviors or confine criminals, were too harsh for the young ones; hence the change, and development of a new system. The idea came from common practice such as the use of placement societies, where delinquent and poor children would be taken to live with farm families, or serve apprenticeships instead of prisons. Keeping delinquent children out of jail and the idea of probation was however, obtained from John Augustus; a shoemaker from Boston. In the 1840s, he would bail adults and delinquent children out of jail, promising the judges that he would supervise their conduct, and ensure they go to school for the case of young people, and given honest employment for the case of adults. By 1859, Augustus had provided bail for 1900 adults and juveniles. He had made an impact in the justice system, and this was recognized as an important method of dealing with delinquen t young people and criminals. This has evolved over time with the current system having probation officers collecting data about the delinquent young people, and assisting the judge in informed decision making about the juveniles’ cases. It has also been established that communities need to be more involved in order to develop a preventive approach to juvenile crime (Livers, 2013). Standards and Goals Just like in prisons, jails and other correction facilities, American Correctional Association and other relevant organizations have established certain standards for juvenile probation and parole. These act as guidelines for best practices. These standards however, have not been adopted universally because probation services can be provided through various ways, and still meet the needs for rehabilitation and safety, and observe the legal rights of minors. According the standards, before placing a juvenile under probation, a needs assessment is necessary, accompanied by a servi ce plan. The standards further recommend that the needs assessment be done by a probation officer, with the help juvenile and his or her family members. The following areas of need should be assessed: proximity of the correctional program to the youth, medical problems, availability of placements, and the capacity of the youth to benefit from the program. There should also be availability of supplemental services that

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Stop and Frisk Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Stop and Frisk - Essay Example The trial court found him guilty of possession of a weapon by a prohibited possessor and possession of marijuana. The court of appeals reversed the decision claiming the standard required in Terry v. Ohio was not met. â€Å"Terry established that, in an investigatory stop based on reasonably grounded suspicion of criminal activity, the police must be positioned to act instantly if they have reasonable cause to suspect that the persons temporarily detained are armed and dangerous... Citing Terry, the Court further held that a driver, once outside the stopped vehicle, may be patted down for weapons if the officer reasonable concludes that the driver might be armed and dangerous... The Arizona Court of Appeals recognized that... once Officer Trevizo began questioning him on a matter unrelated to the traffic stop, patdown authority ceased to exist, absent reasonable suspicion that Johnson had engaged, or was about to engage, in criminal activity.† (Arizona,

Monday, July 22, 2019

How Does Willy Russell Create Mood Essay Example for Free

How Does Willy Russell Create Mood Essay In the Summer Sequence Willy Russell’s three main protagonists are shown to grow up from the ages of 15 to 18, thus becoming adults throughout the song. This means that the sequence acts as a watershed in the respect that it marks a major turning point in the play. This is shown through the atmosphere that Russell creates, which goes from fairly positive, hopeful tone to a more cynical and desperate one over the duration of the sequence. Russell uses several techniques to create these atmospheres throughout. In the opening of the Summer Sequence the atmosphere is clearly a happy one, which is shown by Russell by using words like â€Å"young, free and innocent† to describe the characters. In this section, the word â€Å"innocent† is used twice. This repetition emphasises their youth and their naivety. â€Å"You haven’t got a care†, suggests Russell is trying to create an image of the characters as being without concern, completely free of worry so it reinforces the absolute happiness of the characters. Another adjective that occurs later in the song is â€Å"immortal† which at this stage of the play creates an atmosphere of excitement and spontaneity because the children can’t conceive of an end to their current lives. A technique that Russell uses starts to use here is imagery, â€Å"street’s turned to paradise†, the word â€Å"paradise† bring to mind an idea of secure and complete happiness, which is how he describes them in this verse. Another technique is personification, â€Å"radio’s singing dreams†, giving the radio the ability to do something that brings happiness or joy. This line also works the first time the motif of dreams appears, one that recurs throughout the sequence. The next notable part of the sequence is entirely stage directions, and shows the characters at a fairground. In this part of the sequence the most obvious technique is foreshadowing and motifs arising. In it, Linda is just ignored by the narrator, who is running the stall, when giving the gun to them, but the boys both insist Linda fires it, which is reminiscent of the beginning of the play when Linda takes the airgun from Mickey and beats him at firing at cans. Linda also used to control their social situations, â€Å"let’s throw some stones through them windows†. This scene is also very reliant on the gun motif that runs through the entire play which creates a darker and more sinister atmosphere, and that suggests a level of violence. The fairground scene is also reflected in the musical choice, which is fairground-like music that plays to the tune of ‘Tell me it’s not true’, the song Mrs Johnstone sings at the very beginning of the play while her two sons lie dead on the stage. So, again this ties in with the audiences’ awareness of the boys’ tragic fate, thus, creating a foreshadowing atmosphere and suggests impending tragedy. This links with the gun motif, as together these themes create a sense of impending violence and death. The last line of this section of stage directions is â€Å"Linda is caught in the middle, the game freezes†. This creates a dark atmosphere as throughout the play Linda is always seen to be caught in between the two boys, but so far, it has never ended badly. In this instance, however, it foreshadows the fates of all three characters. The use of the word â€Å"game†, referring to a game of piggy-in-the-middle, could suggest that the context of the play when Linda gets caught up in her own happiness which eventually leads to the tragic fate of the twins. Overall, this section is of a darker tone than the last, but this atmosphere is created through the subtext, so the audience may not be fully aware of why they feel this way about the atmosphere. This is featured through the presence of the narrator, who throughout the play appears on stage to signify or prompt something negative to happen. He hands them the gun, and prompts the game of piggy-in-the-middle that Linda gets caught between. The next section uses metaphors to create a dark, impending atmosphere, that is more openly sinister that the previous section. Russell refers to the characters are â€Å"Lambs in spring†, which suggests not only their innocence and naivety, but an inevitable fate, specifically one that is forced upon them, not of their own doing. This explicitly refers to the brothers’ fate in a way in which the last section didn’t, so the tone is far more marred by the eventuality of their deaths. This date is also referenced when Russell extends the metaphor, â€Å"fate the later seasons bring†, which causes the audience to remember the scene at the very beginning of the play, preventing them from being drawn into the initial happiness of the three teenagers in this sequence. Again, it refers to Linda being caught in the middle of the pair, foreshadowing their final argument. It also refers to Linda paying a â€Å"price†, a theme that was initially shown in the song ‘Easy Terms’, sung by Mrs Johnstone, and in both cases foreshadows the price they’ll have to pay for their involvement in the twins’ lives. The music becomes far more serious and sinister, a repetitive tense note with no actual melody. In the next section a recurring theme is shown with the references to time. This creates a sad, melancholic atmosphere, as the audience is aware of the character’s significant lack of time together, but the characters are not, so their happy unawareness and this dramatic irony is slightly poignant. Again, fate is reference by the narrator â€Å"care not for what’s at the end of the day†, again forcing the audience to remember the fate of the boys, this enhances the melancholy mood of the section. â€Å"What is to come, what might have been†, references both the eventualities of the play, whilst also suggesting they could have been happy, that it could have they could have been happier, depressing the mood even further. It is made poignant by the characters’ blissful ignorance, â€Å"life has no ending†¦Talk away the night†, which ties in with the earlier references of immorality. Again, this dramatic irony, where the audience know that the boys’ lives do have endings that are fast approaching, almost makes the audience beg them to not waste their time talking â€Å"away the night†. â€Å"Share your last cigarette† also ties into the earlier scene where Mickey and Eddie share things, such as sweets and later cigarettes, they promise to share things in their blood brothers pact; but they cannot share Linda. Arguably the downfall of both brothers, meaning that this watershed’s atmosphere is wholly dark. In the next section it is all stage directions, but Russell uses foreshadowing and the use of the narrator’s presence to create a seemingly happy atmosphere that still foreshadows tragedy. In it, the trip are taking photos of each other at the beach. In the one between Eddie and Linda, Eddie down on one knee and demonstrating affections by kissing her hand. Throughout the play, Linda has shaped Eddie’s personality and actions, such as coercing him to throw rocks, and Eddie has appeared to like her from the very beginning and so this foreshadows the dynamics of their later relationship. Mickey and Linda’s photo does the same, as Mickey â€Å"pulls a distorted face†, and Linda chastening him for it, which foreshadows Mickey’s later dependency on medication, and Linda’s efforts to help him get off them. This foreshadowing of tragic events, in a way that appears innocent creates an  eerie, disconcerting atmosphere. As there are no words, it can’t openly reference what’s to come, but uses what the characters think is a harmless and happy moment. This is compounded by the musical choice, which is again ‘Tell me it’s not true’, as fairground music. Again, this foreshadows the final scene, creating a foreboding atmosphere without explicit reference as to why it appears that way. In this scene we see the characters taking pictures of them at the beach, these photos are memories of the last time the three of them are all truly happy. Therefore, the photographs signify the end of their childhood and innocence and dreams. This made clearer by the narrator being the one to take the photographs, thus being the one who signifies the end of their childhoods and lives. The children literally become adults at the end of the beach scene in the Summer Sequence, as well as metaphorically. Because the narrator is a sinister figure throughout the play, and usually is there to prompt the occurrence of something tragic, it creates a sense of impending tragedy even more obvious in this scene. The picture that the narrator takes is of them all together, happy, so he not only brings their childhood to a close, but also their happiness and friendship. In a sense, he symbolises reality as he intrudes on their happiness, despite their ignorance and the audience’s desire for him not to do so. He also represents society as it is eventually social constraints of class and wealth that divide the two. This way the audience are forced to see the society that they are part of and this is the factor that brings the story to an end. The fact that he appears to them as a friendly, even helpful, face increases the audience’s wariness of him and therefore the sinister nature of the scene. The overriding atmosphere of the scene is the last section is one of desperation and uncertainty. Russell uses metaphors such as â€Å"broken bottles in the sand† to symbolise a man-made impression on something naive and happy, which symbolises the characters’ friendship and how it is affected by class. The motif of a dream is repeated, as is the theme of innocence. The references to dreams ties in with the song tell me it’s not true, which refers to dreams. The reference to innocence here again makes the trio seem devious to the fact that they will be subject to tragedy.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The Significance Of Nationalism And Liberalism History Essay

The Significance Of Nationalism And Liberalism History Essay It can be debated as to when the sense of nationalism and liberalism arise in Germany. Historians like Andrina Stiles have turned the focus onto the War of Liberation against Napoleon I, where collective German states participated in driving Napoleon from Central Europe. After the Battle of Leipzig, a large number of young middle and upper class Germans hoped for a united Germany. However, the resistance never became a national uprising, and German seemed divided afterwards. The North tended to look to Prussian for political leadership whilst the South look towards Austria. With these two powerful states, the future and unification of Germany depended greatly upon their interests. The revolutions of 1848 were also another focal point in the rise of nationalism and liberalism. The constitutional changes from the revolt indicated the ability of the groups, where they were able to overthrow their monarchs and establish a liberal parliament. The introduction of the Frankfurt Parliament w as also a success as a liberal parliament was introduced and all of the states contributed, sparking an achievement for nationalists to unite German states. These victories did not last long, as Prussian and Austrian counter-revolutions forced parliaments to dissolve and re-establish the old system. Yet, the ideology and force of these two groups are significant in the unification of Germany as they brought the sense of unity and freedom to the people at times of crisis or unrest. Nationalism arose in Germany due to the resentment of French rule, which quickly declined after their occupation. From the view of Stiles point, the strength of nationalism remained positive as middle classes displayed their sense from cultural similarities. There were a remarkable number of festivals and associations portraying a sense of German identity. However, these groups are a small sector of the German Confederation. Nationalism had little support at the time, and unification of Germany seemed impossible. In 1830s, a number of republican groups planned for German unification. Metternich was certainly thrown into panic and soon the Diet passed the Six articles. This help establish the young Germany movement dedicating to establishing a united Germany. From these developments, nationalism was seen progressing from a small group with wild ideas to a force that can unsettle monarchs in states like Prussia and Austria. From these events, there is a clear indication of liberalism a nd nationalism gaining supports and achieving some of their aims. The formation of Zollverein provided Prussia to lead other states economically. However, it was also a significant focus point for nationalism. The economic unity triggered nationalists to push for political unity. With Prussian dominance of the organisation, the members agreed that Prussia would be a natural leader if there were a unified Germany. In the 1848 revolutions, nationalism supported the Frankfurt Parliament as it unified Germany politically. However, the failure of the Parliament was due to the division of the liberals and the lack of support for them when the counter-revolutions happened. This is significant in the unification of Germany, as it showed a unified Germany was possible, but lacking the support from the people to stop the counter-revolutions. This lack of support was soon solved when the relations with France worsened, and nationalism rallied the people to fight as a single Germany against the ir old enemy. Liberalism is the belief in liberty and equal rights, but with the majority of states consisted of rulers holding onto absolute power, they would certainly refuse the idea of liberalism. Metternich of Austria opposed the constitutional reforms proposed in 1819, which included the freedom of speech, press and allowing the formation of political parties. From this situation, it was clear that liberalism was unable to progress as the fixed constitutional system gave them little influential power. The results in Prussia were the same. However, in 1830, the July Revolution in Paris sparked an indication across Europe that liberal ideas can be achieve through force. This led to movements to force grants of a liberal constitution in states like Saxony. Many monarchs simply gave in to the demands, fearing the same fate as King Charles X of France. This gradual growth of liberal support suggests people agree to the idea of freedom. These certainly appealed to the middle classes, but alarmed t he aristocrats as their influential powers have declined. The initial success of the 1848 revolutions in Austria, Prussia and other German states made possible an attempt to win German unity through one central representative body, which met in May 1848, was known as the Frankfurt Parliament. Elected respectively from the German states by universal manhood suffrage, the eight hundred-odd delegates included mostly middle class and professional elements. They wanted to establish, through discussions and recommendations, a liberal, constitutional, federal and united German State. In fact, they did not possess any executive authority, as they could not give order to any of the German rulers. Apart from this major weakness, they were split on two main programs of German unity. The decision of including Austria in the proposed new Germany (Grossdeutschland and Kleindeutschland) split the members. While the Frankfurt Assembly was debating and arguing, Austria and Prussia had gradually won the upper hand against revolutions. As conservative counter-revolution advanced, the days of the Parliament were numbered. This attempt to unify Germany and form a constitutional parliament ended, but remained a thought in peopleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s mind. In conclusion, liberalism and nationalism was a significant factor in the unification of Germany by giving the people a sense of national identity and pride.

Relationship between Parental Rejection and Loneliness

Relationship between Parental Rejection and Loneliness Tazrin Akkas Zinia INTRODUCTION In the literature there are many different dimensions such as acceptance, affection control, warmth permissiveness, restrictiveness, and demandingness about the child rearing attitudes or parental behavior. Children all over the world need a specific form of positive response (acceptance) from parents and others attachment figures. When this need is not met satisfactorily, children everywhere regardless of variations in culture gender, age or, other such defining conditions tend to report different types of behavior and attitudes. Humans have over the course of evaluation, developed the biologically based emotional need for positive response from parents and other attachment figures. This need includes an emotional wish desire, or yearning (whether consciously recognized or not) for comfort, support care, concern, nurturance and over all positive regard from people with whom they have affection bonds of attachment. For this reason, parental acceptance-rejection is an important part of children’s lives at different stages of their development. Parents may be warm and loving or hostile and rejecting. Each pattern of parental behavior effects the personality development of children. According to interpersonal theory given by Sullivan (1953) the self system that is a person’s perception of self, is a significant component of personality, which develops through interaction with significant figures in the environment. In later life people respond according to this self system, whether people see the self as good or bad depends on their past perceptions. Rohner gave his famous Parental acceptance-rejection theory, widely known as a theory of socialization which attempts to explain and predict the antecedents, correlations and consequences of parental acceptance and rejection throughout the globe. It focuses on four major issues, one of them is the behavioral, cognitive and emotional development of children and adult personality functioning. Every person has experienced the warmth and affection provided by someone important to him/her, who is called the parent not necessarily, mother and father. This warmth and affection is a range from a great deal to none, where one end is named parental acceptance while the other one is termed rejection (Rohner, 2000a).According to the findings of a study conducted over worldwide love sample and American sample, parental hostility was significantly related to certain personality dispositions including hostility, negative self esteem and self adequacy, emotional instability, negative world view and dependency (Rohner). â€Å"Parenting† means providing care, support and love in a way that leads to a child’ includes being responsible for the child physicals need. It means creating a nurturing environment of attention, encouragement thus parenting involvement. It also means providing guidance for the children. It also means providing guidance for the children. Thus parenting involves meeting the Childs physical, mental, emotional and social needs. Both parental acceptance and rejection consist the warmth dimensions of parenting. According to PART theory, parental acceptance refers to the warmth, affection, care, comfort, concern, nurturance, support, or simply love that parents and others can feel and express toward their children, and others. Acceptance has two principle behavioral expressions: physical and verbal. Physical expressions of acceptance include hugging, fondling, caressing, approving glances, kissing, smiling, and other such indications of endearment, approval, or support. Expressions of verbal acceptance include praising, complimenting, saying nice things to or about the child or other person, perhaps singing songs or telling stories to a young child, and the like. A feelings and behaviors and by the presence of a variety of physically and psychologically hurtful behaviors and affects. The most broadly accepted definition of loneliness is the distress that results from discrepancies between ideal and perceived social relationships. This so-called cognitive Discrepancy perspective makes it clear that loneliness is not synonymous with being alone, nor does being with others guarantee protection from feelings of loneliness. Loneliness is the distressing feeling that occurs when one’s social relationships are perceived as being less Satisfying than what is desired. This entry describes how loneliness is conceived and measured; How loneliness is mentally represented; how loneliness influences thoughts, feelings, and Behaviors; and consequences of loneliness for health and wellbeing. Loneliness is related to a number of personal characteristics including low self esteem, shyness, feelings of alienation, external locus of control and belief that the word is not a just place that are associated with depression .( Jones, Freeman, in press). The term â€Å"depression’’ in the study refers to the central features of depressive to disorders, such as, depressed, mood, pessimistic ,thinking ,lack of enjoyment ,reduced energy and slowness. Of these, depressed mood is usually, but not invariably the most prominent symptom. (Gelder, Gath, Mayo and Cowen, 1996) some researchers showed that depression might have different manifestation in different cultures, for example, in an Indian study; it was found that depression had varied manifestations like depressed mood, anxiety, somatic, features, insomnia, obsessions etc (Puri etal, 1995). Literature review Stogdill (1937) said that, â€Å"The empirical study of parental acceptance-rejection has a history going back to the 1890s. It was not until the 1930s, however, that a more-or-less continuous body of empirical research began to appear dealing with the effects of parental acceptance-rejection.† Among, different programs of research on acceptance rejection, the work of Rohner and colleagues are most highly developed. Almost 400 studies have been completed in more than 60 nations internationally, as well as in every major ethnic group of America (Rohner, 2004a). Khaleque and Rohner, (2002a) experiment A meta analysis showed that, approximately 26% of the variability in children’s psychological adjustment and 21% of that is adult’s is accounted for by(parental as well as maternal) acceptance rejection. Roher, Uddin, Shamsunnaher Khaleque (2008) showed that, Among Japanese adult’s, remembered parental acceptance made an independent and significant contribution to men’s adjustment whereas only remembered maternal acceptance made an independent and significant contribution to men’s adjustment . Chyung Lee, 2008; Parmer Rohner, 2005; Rohner Khaleque, 2008, found several research findings and suggest that â€Å"remembrance of father’s (but not mother’s) acceptance in childhood are uniquely associated with variations in the psychological adjustment of adult people† Varan Rohner Eryuksel, (2005) conducted A study which is supports conclusions, from the preceding research, and thus suggests the possibility of a universal relation between individual’s mental health status and their perceptions of acceptance rejection by parents and intimate adult partners . In addition to issues of psychological adjustment, evidence also strongly implicates at least three other mental health issues of parental acceptance rejection .these issues are(1)depression and depressed affect,(2)behavior problems including conduct disorders, externalizing behaviors, and delinquency, (3) substance (drug and alcohol) abuse (rohner britner,2002). Rohner Veneziono (2001; 2000, 2003) concluted that father love(acceptance-rejection) is often as strongly implicated as mother love in the development of behavioral and psychological problems as well as in the development of offspring’s sense of health and well being . Rationale of the study Very few empirical investigations are available in Bangladesh context to highlight the relationship between parental acceptance-rejection and mental health problems .loneliness and depression are prominent psychiatric disorders in Bangladesh and so would be considered with priority. By this study we will be able to contribute to the understanding of the parents to appropriate parenting behaviors which are necessary for the good mental health for their children. And without good mental health they will be unable to contribute the future national developmental process. Furthermore this study will be able to enrich the PART theory. Objectivity of the study The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation of parental acceptance-rejection with loneliness depression. Considering above reviews and objectives of the study two hypotheses were formulated. Hypotheses1: parental rejection would be positively correlated with loneliness. Hypotheses2: parental rejection would be positively correlated with depression. Method Research design In present study, for investigating relation of parental–rejection with anxiety and depression, correlation and multiple regression analysis will be used. Sample A sample of 100 individuals will be used, 50 males and 50females. Their ages range from 20 to 50. At the time of this investigation, all of the participants are university students and studying different areas. Instruments Demographic Information Form: It gathered information related to the personal life of the participants for example, age, gender, academic qualification, number of siblings, birth order, family system etc. Adult Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire/Control: Father mother-Short Form (Adult PARQ/ Control: Father mother-Short Form, Rohner, 2005, Urdu translation by Munaf, Kamrani Hussain 2009): It measures the adult’s perception of father’s and mother’s acceptance-rejection in their childhood. This 29 items self reported questionnaire measures five dimensions of paternal behavior that are coldness/lack of affection, hostility/aggression, indifference/neglect, undifferentiated/rejection and control, that can be rated on four-point Likert scale ranges from almost always true (4), sometimes true (3), rarely true (2) and almost never true (1).Its cumulative score indicates perceived father acceptance-rejection; score at or below the midpoint of test scores means acceptance while high score is indicative of rejection. According to Khaleque and Rohner (2002) it is an empirically validated instrument used by researcher and in clinical settings as reliable measures. The revised UCLA loneliness scale was to develop to measure loneliness. It is a 20 items. Likert type scale.20 items of English version were translated into Bengali. The English and Bangla version were administered to 50 subjects with a gap of 7 days. Significant correlation [r48=.88,p>01] between scores of English and Bangla version indicated translation reliability of the scale that were measured the something by the two version . Each of the 20 items is scored such that a 1 indicates lack of loneliness and a 4 indicates high level of loneliness. Adapted Bangla version of The Geriatric Depression Scale : GDS (Brink et al., 1982) would be used to measure depression of people. GDS is Geriatric ally oriented scale for depression. It consists of 30 items which include symptoms like lowered affect, inactivity, irritability, withdrawal, distressing thoughts, and negative judgments about past, present, and future. Each item is worded as a question and respondents are asked to reply in â€Å"yes† or â€Å"no† fashion. Each â€Å"yes† answer receives 1 point, except on reverse-scored items. Where â€Å"no† receives answer zero point. Ten items are reversed-scored. Total score of the scale ranges from 0 to 30 and a score of 0 to 10 is considered to be the range for normal no depression, scores of 11-20 indicate mild depression and 21-30 moderate to major depression. The reliability coefficient of split half (Spearman-Brown) was .81 and alpha (Cronbach) was .84 which were highly significant indicating the int ernal consistency of the scale. Procedure The above instruments will be administered individually to the members of the sample. They will be informed of the purpose of the present study and necessary rapport will be established before administering the questionnaires. The respondents will be instructed to read the items of the scales attentively and to respond rapidly. They will be asked to give tick (√) mark in the appropriate box. They will be also requested not to omit any item in the questionnaire and will be talk to them no right or wrong answer and no time limit for answering. Data Analyses A descriptive analysis of the variables will be presented such as the respondents by age, sex, SES. Then, a multiple regression analysis will be carried out to see how much respondents’ loneliness and depression can be explained by the parental acceptance and rejection.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The journey of Captain Thomas Sutherland to Australia in 1881 Essay

Greetings to you all. My name is Thomas Sutherland and, along with my wife Adelaide, was the first officer sent to Australia to commence the work of the Salvation Army by the General, William Booth. For me to give you all a true picture of my journey to Australia I need to go back to my youth. You see, I wasn?t always a true follower of our Lord Jesus Christ. Yes I went to Sunday school when I was a lad, but during my teen years I lost my way causing great concern to my parents. I began to behave in a wicked way and would become one of the best blasphemers going around. I became the leader of a gang of roughs having shown good leadership skills amongst the group. It wasn?t long before I moved from these wild ways to that of drinking at the public houses, became idle and loathsome. This is where I picked up the name of ?Drunken Tom?. I picked up work as a farrier and had several close shaves with horses that didn?t like me. I then decided to move from my home town of Brancaster, in the Norfolk County, to London. I had learned music during my younger days and I was able to put these skills to use as a strolling vagabond (or a busker as you would now call them). While in London I would often think about what my parents would think of me in my dishevelled state. This would lead me to become lonesome and I would delve deeper into my wicked ways as well as my drunkenness. I very rarely communicated with my parents as I was ashamed of what I had become and didn?t know how to stop it. One day while in the streets of Hackney, feeling lost and sorry for myself, I heard the pleasant sounds of singing. I had not heard such a cheerful and loving sounds since I stoped going to Sunday school. I followed the sound of the voices... ... at night, and God came very near as Mrs. Sutherland and myself spoke of His love. The devil raged and tried to upset us, but it proved an entire failure, so we got the victory through the blood. We are teaching a present salvation, and the captain, mate and sailors listen to us. Several of the passengers are very much interested in The Salvation Army. But above all, God is with us. We have some roughs on board, and they commence to play their games when we hold our meetings. But God says ?Go on!? and on we go. The journey would become a lot smoother as we headed into the southern summer and after 43 days of sea travel, on the 17th of February, we would finally reach our destination of Adelaide in South Australia. The temperature was well over 100 degrees when we arrived, but that wasn?t going to stop us from commencing the Lords work in this vast land.

Friday, July 19, 2019

The War between Scotland and England in the Reign of Edward I Essay exa

Why did War break out between Scotland and England in the Reign of Edward I? On the 14th of May 1264, the forces of Simon de Montfort, Gloucester and the Londoners were set arrayed against the loyalist forces of King Henry III, Richard of Cornwall and Prince Edward (later to become King Edward I). The loyalists suffered a massive defeat at this Battle of Lewes and among those captured, aside from Richard of Cornwall and perhaps the King (Prestwich indicates the unsure nature of the King's capture 46), were the northern barons (Scottish lords) of Balliol, Bruce and Comyn. (Jenks 132) Prince Edward also became a hostage as part of an exchange after the battle. These same men who fought together and were held captive by the de Montforts would war against each other thirty years later. King Edward I (whom will be referred to as Edward) was not set on instigating a war against Scotland, nor were any of these Scottish lords interested in battling against such a formidable opponent as England. So why did war occur if none of these men were initially motivated for wa r? A series of unfortunate, but potent events led to the chrysalis of war, which was then allowed to grow and fully develop into a war by the specific actions of individuals. This essay will attempt to draw attention to many of the events which gave rise to war and investigate the complex nature of the individuals who in the end caused war through their acts (intentional and non-intentional). During Henry III's reign the baronial reform movement was renewed once again. The Provisions of Oxford attempted, among other reforms, to "reform the household of the king and queen" (Baker 10), which undoubtedly included the household of the King and Queen's son, Edward. This le... ...tic Scotland and the Middle Ages (Edinburgh, 1997) Vickers, K. H. A History of England: (Volume III) England in the Later Middle Ages (London, 1937). Webster, B. Scotland from the Eleventh Century to 1603 (London, 1975) *All primary documents from this text come with this preface in mind (especially that which I have bolded): In this volume, as in its predecessor, I have tried to keep both footnotes and editorial comment to a minimum, the only real problem occurring with documents written in the emerging literary English of the period. With most of these I have used modern versions, but one or two I have left in the original, to instance the spelling and form of the language. With these some notes have been necessary, but by and large they are intelligible with a little effort, and should be interesting to read. Such mistakes, as exist are of course, mine.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Employment Relations Essay

At the most fundamental level, employment relationship involves monetary exchange where there is contract between an employer and employee to obtain the output of employee’s ability to work. (Balnave et al. 2007) This relationship can often result in either dispute or collaboration within an organization. More often than not, the different aspects of the nature of employment relationship tend to likely generate conflicts between the employers and employees. The focus would be on industrial conflict, which from time to time occurs between managers and workers, the classification of conflicts and what are some of the theories which describes the situation of industrial conflicts in Singapore. As defined by Komhauser et al., industrial conflict is ‘the total range of behaviours and attitudes that express opposition and divergent orientations between industrial owners and managers, on the one hand, and working people and their organisations on the other hand’ (1954,13). Singapore is generally noted as a peaceful country with minimal industrial conflicts. This mainly attributed to the presence of strict regulations against overt conflicts as stated in the requirements of ‘restrictions on strikes and lock-outs’ (Attorney General Chambers 2009). The presence of mediation or conciliation channel also assisted in the resolution of concerning issues. Conflicts are seen to be complicated and in Singapore, some causes or outline that are governed by theories of Industrialisation, Institutionalisation, Political, Economic and Social factors. More of these would be looked into further in this essay. Overt and Covert Conflicts Opposing behaviours and attitudes can be classified into 2 categories, namely overt conflict and covert conflict. According to Petzall et al. (2007), overt conflicts are conflicts which are planned and joint by two or more persons, thus observable by the public. Examples of such conflicts include strikes, lockouts, work to rule where employees perform only duties which are indicated in their contracts, political demonstrations and many more. Petzall et al. (2007) also mentioned that covert conflicts are conflicts which are unplanned, concerns individual and hence less observable by the public. Examples would include absenteeism, work sabotage, job-hopping where people change jobs to get better pay or pursue their personal interest as well as low work efficiency. Covert conflict is seen to prevail over overt conflict in terms of the financial losses of a business. In Singapore’s context, it would be considered illegal to have overt conflicts due to the existing strict criminal law stated in Attorney General Chambers (2009) Despite the fact that there were strict laws to adhere to, there are several channels such as Industrial Arbitration Court (IAC), Case Trust, Ministry of Manpower (MOM), National Trade Union Congress (NTUC) and more, where individuals could approach to resolve certain conflicts they experienced. For example, Sharon (2011) reported on a case of disagreement between SIA and SilkAir pilots and their company over their flight payment. The issue was referred to Industrial Arbitration Court (IAC) where the judge proposed that the company could have constant observation of the flight schedule to make sure there is fair payouts distribution. In this scenario, IAC had acted as a conciliator. The reduction of conflict in Singapore is also due to tripartism, wage reform and labour legislation. In tripartism, there is involvement of managers, employees and ‘other systems such as political, social, economic, technological, cultural and legal systems’ (Tan 2007, p.27). These parties would resolve matters in a diplomatic manner. The establishment of National Wage Council (NWC) brings about tripartism where workers’ wages are evaluated and wage reform, where there is flexibility in the wage payouts, was introduced. Tan (2004) mentioned that the benefits were studied and it was found that having flexibility enables organizations to make swift modifications to their cost computation during economic variations so as to be cost competitive. Organisations also could reduce wages during difficult time and give incentive in better times which assisted in allowing workers to stay in their job. The introduction of Employment Act also played a major role in providing regulations on the conditions of work. The use of frames of reference is a necessary and essential tool to better identify a person’s view and actions on employment relations. Fox recognized three frames of reference, namely the unitarist, pluralist and radical frames. (McCourt W.;Eldridge D.,2003) Unitarist The underlying theory of this perspective is that ‘employment relationship is based on mutual cooperation and a harmony of interest between employers and employees’ (Balnave et al. 2007, p.10) In this circumstances, the targets and objectives of the organisation are universal. Management is viewed as the only authority and managers see their power to make independent decisions of their business without being hindered by government, workers or unions. Trade unions are not embraced and are considered as interference to the harmony of the organisation. The presence of industrial conflict is regarded as having poor management or failure to lead effectively. As a result of this perception, the various interests between the management and labour were not recognised. Pluralist In this approach, conflicts are regarded as unavoidable. It recognises that organisations are made up of cluster of individuals with their own goals, interests and direction. (Balnave et al. 2007, p.11) To prevent damage of diverse interest, measures and regulations have to be in place and use, leading to the ‘institutionalisation of conflict’. This ensures that there is equal distribution of power amongst stakeholders. Trade unions are welcome as it permits employees to have a say in what concerns them in their organisation. Singapore can be seen to have more of a pluralist approach from the formation of NTUC which consists of representative of employees. These representatives are given the opportunity to voice and negotiate over the terms and condition of their employment and their opinions are also taken into consideration in the management’s decisions. NTUC branch representatives also involve themselves in collective bargaining where feedback could effectively be gathered on concerning issues. On the other hand, another trade union known as Singapore National Employers Federation (SNEF) was also set up to represent the employers’ interest. Radical/Marxist It consists of a wider scope as compared to unitarist and pluralist viewpoint. This perception involves society being segmented into different status where there is unfair allocation of power between those who has financial capabilities and those who can only offer their labour. The status difference caused the incompatibility between employers and employees. (Balnave et al. 2007, p.11) Singapore Industrial Relations System Anantaraman (1990) suggested that Singapore’s economy is made up of industrial relations system and production system. Both systems are in reliant of one another as the consequences of the industrial relations system would result in the contribution of the production system. Industrialisation Industrialisation has often been associated with industrial conflict. Ross and Hartman (1960) mentioned that the type of strikes of a particular country is connected to the country’s industrial relation system. This theory maps out four patterns, namely North European (type 1), North European (type 2), Mediterranean/Asian and North American. Singapore could probably be classified under North European (type 1) where the government has been actively engaging its interest in the economy of Singapore. There have been continuous efforts by the government to attract more and more foreign talent. Ramesh (2011) quoted what former Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew said that, ‘Singapore would not be able to punch above its own weight if it were to depend on talent from its own population’. As technology progresses, the stress placed on workers for major scale and non-stop productions increases the likelihood of industrial conflict. (Woodward 1958) This again could be due to Marxist perspective where workers with lower status could only provide their labour output as they do not have any capital and those who has the capital would maximise these labour’s output for high profits. Institutionalisation Wright Mills (1948) recognised that there are four phases where institutionalisation is related to the pattern of conflict. The first phase is where trade unions are against the negotiation prerogative of businesses and the focus is on individuals. It is unplanned and can be aggressive. The second phase involves businesses restructuring themselves into associations to oppose the rising authority of trade unions. As a result, the bargaining outline became more national and industry based, converting conflicts into a more organised manner. Third phase went on to become an effective mediating stage while the trade unions’ viewpoints are overruled diplomatically in the fourth phase. At the last phase, trade unions developed tactics to advance into institutions, involving the workers to be part of the economy. They also engage themselves in conflict resolution and labour contracts. For the case of Singapore, NTUC has been strengthening ties with other businesses and unions such as National Taxi Association, Cathay Cineplexes Food & Drinks Allied Workers’ Union and Housing and Development Board Staff Union. NTUC has also been participating enthusiastically in collective bargaining assembly. Ciegg (1976) also mentioned that the more thorough the difference of opinion reconciled with collective bargaining, the lesser strikes would occur. According to Wright Mills (1948), trade unions and business associations are formed to counteract each other. This led to the nation’s participation where trade unions becomes engage in politics and in turn affects the government policies. Political Factors Conflict is determined by the sharing of political power distribution. Singapore’s trade union has a unique relationship with the government, People’s Action Party (PAP) as most of the members within PAP used to be part of the union. Halimah Yacob being the Deputy Secretary General of NTUC and a Minister would attend cabinet conference and address worker’s issues. As such, this helped in the reduction of conflicts. It is cited by Korpi and Shalev (1979) that the greater admittance to the government contributes to lesser occurrence of conflict. Economic Factors As indicated by Paldham and Pederson (1982), the changing models of conflicts are due to adjustments of wage present in variety of workers. It is researched by Smith et al. (1978) that there are four factors namely amount of income, labour concentration, organisation size and dominance of women in workforce determine the differences in conflict. Those who earn high income in Singapore vie for better income. There is also a significant increase in women joining the workforce according to statistics produced. (Ministry of Manpower 2011) Social Factors Notwithstanding to economic factors, social factors also play a part in ensuring minimal conflict. Mayo (1933) explained that while worker’s economic needs are met and the social needs are not met, there would be high possibility of conflict and presence of low spirits in the workplace. One aspect of social needs would consist of communication. NTUC promotes its dedication to be one which has open communications in the workplace, free from prejudice regardless of any type of individuals. Conclusion Several theories have been discussed pertaining to the causes of industrial conflict. There are many more theories surrounding the area of industrial conflict and it differs in different countries depending on the industrial systems and the governance present. It would be impossible for a country or any organization not to have any conflicts. However, Singapore can be considered successful in handling overt conflicts as shown through the legislation in place and also a variety of mediation or conciliation bodies such as NTUC, IAC or MOM which are available for different employees or employers to approach. Finally, there has to be active listening and pro-activeness by the government on dealing with the burning issues occurring constantly as time progress so that conflicts can remain manageable. Reference Anantaraman, V. 1900, Singapore Industrial Relations System, Linographic Services Pte Ltd, Singapore Attorney General Chambers, 2009, Illegal Strikes And Lock-outs in Essential Services, Singapore, viewed 18 February 2012, Balnave,N., Brown,J., Maconachie,G. and Stone,R. 2007, Employment relations in Australia, John Wiley and Sons, Milton, Qld Ministry of Manpower. 2011, Singapore Workforce, 2011, MRSD, Singapore, viewed 20 February 2012, Petzall, S, Abbott, K and Timo, N, 2007, Australian industrial relations in an Asian context, 3rd ed, Eruditions Publishing, Cowes Victoria Ramesh, S. 2011, ‘S’pore cannot do without foreign talent: Ex-MM Lee’, 22 July, viewed 18 February 2012, Sharon, S. 2011, ‘IAC rejects pilots’ proposal on flight allowance’, 21 October, viewed 23 February 2012, Tan Soo San 2004, Wage Reform And Tripartism: A Test of Trust at Work, Centre for Governance And Leadership, Singapore, viewed 25 February 2012,

Cream Cracker Under The Settee

The name of the diarrhoea that we are studying is Cream common snapping turtle under the Settee. This stage was written in 1987 by a middle decrepit Alan Bennett who was born in Leeds in 1934. He grew up through the Second macrocosm War and in his symbolize he writes closely how views on life bring forth changed over the years. The play is part of the talking Heads series of plays in the 1980s. Cream Cracker is a dramatic monologue in which Doris, a 75 year old chick of leisure, speaks throughout. Doris is played by peeress Thora Hird who has just recently passed a fed seasonl agency.The play explores the changes deep d deliver society from when Alan Bennett was a child, through the mid-sixties and to the 1987. In the 1960s, the youngisher generations were getting closely of the love and treat from the family but the aged(a) were beginning to be seen as a hindrance. The play also explored how people had changed with the flavor that it was necessary to lock their doo r way of lifes and to be precise secure rather than leaving the door open desire they did in the past days.Doris personality changes throughout the play, as in the beginning, Doris wants to be indep closing curtainent but Zulema, Doris care worker, has forbid her from doing whatsoever signboardwork. This enrages Doris as she believes Zulema doesnt reave her house properly as she says Zulema doesnt spatter. She fractional dusts. This is pointing out that Doris is instead fussy with the process that she receives from Zulema and doesnt seem to be grateful for any of it. There is proof that Doris is correct roughly the way Zulema dusts when she finds an old choice cracker under the settee. Doris intends on keeping the cream cracker to send off to kindly services to show that Zulema doesnt dust her house.This shows that Doris is preferably spiteful. Later on in the play, Doris seems to be quite a dull but she also recites quite a few conversations that her new-made husba nd Wilfred and she had. An example of which is when she spoke just or so the garden and that Wilfred wanted to have a bush but Doris wanted concrete. Wilfred argued roughly it having non section but Doris wanted it because of the hygiene. This shows that Doris is quite obsessive about hygiene and instanter she has to try and keep her house clean otherwise she believes she e veryow for be jell in Stafford House, an elderly home, but in fact, it is the other way round. By cleaning Doris is putting herself at to a greater extent stake of universe put in Stafford house as she is not actually profound on her feet and suffers from dizzy spells and has a pacemaker. This impart make the interview feeling unforgiving for her and will make them hope that she doesnt pay heed or be moved to Stafford House.The way in which Doris speaks makes her seem rattling practical(prenominal) and can help people in the consultation relate to her in galore(postnominal) ways e.g. you cou ld relate to someone you retire such as an elderly congeneric when shes breathless. This makes it feel as if you know Doris more than you actually do and makes her seem like a real person who would be very easy to like. She also brings up past conversations she has been a part of as I mentioned before which help the auditory modality to become more interested in the play as they are purpose out what Doris is like and what kind of things she chatted about with her husband.Doris life story is quite a moving, involving and very emotional journey. Alan Bennett makes the story very interesting and even more involving by making the actress look directly into the tv camera and making her seem like shes lost and choking through her sentences. She tells the audience about the way that, when Wilfred and she were younger, they were trying for a fluff and when they were having the baby, it was a still birth. The midwife then(prenominal) wrapped the baby boy, who Doris wanted to discover John, in newspaper and Doris was horrified by this. She saw this action as verbalize that the baby was dirty and that it was worthless. By the m Doris had awoken, the baby had gone. This makes this part of the play very sad and distressing.There are galore(postnominal) unseen characters in this play which Doris interprets in her own special way. She mimics a dish out of the characters, especially Zulema, and she is also talks quite sarcastically about Zulema in the way she talks to her. You see this when Zulema says about Doris being unable to run around with the Ewbank and all Doris says in reply is Yes, Zulema. This would make the audience feel sorry for Doris but in the same way happy that she isnt red to let Zulema boss her around. Another character that is introduced by Doris is Wilfred. We first hear of Wilfred when Doris knocks the pictorial matter of the two of them from the mantel piece when she attempts to dust and falls off the buffet.This would make the audience g asp in shock and feel sympathetic for her when she says were cracked Wilfred, which means she is referring to her oarlock as she may have unkept it and that their marriage is cracked. There are a few other characters used in the play such as the microscopic boy who pees in the garden, which shows how disrespectful young children are nowadays, the neighbours whose leaves blow onto Doris garden and the policeman who comes to check on her at the end of the play. These characters are all well measure to come into the play as it breaks the scenes up nicely and is like a chapter in the story being broken by turning the page. If Alan Bennett hadnt put these breaks in the play could have become a pungency boring.Alan Bennett uses his genius and past experiences to make the play realistic by making Doris very able to relate to. A multitude of old people from the same era as Doris are very slow to change like when Doris is in her own home and Zulema mentions Stafford House, she becomes all defensive and wakeful of what might happen next. This will ready a lot of interest as people may be sound their elderly relatives with being placed in a home if they cannot cope on their own and then the people will be able to see how it could be affecting them.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Animal Farm As Animal Satire

This mull all over aims to construe that George Orwell s living creature mature is a govern custodytal raillery which was written to criticize totalitarian regimes and art objecticularly Stalin s practices in Russia. In influence to provide compass entropy that would reveal causes take Orwell to redeem Animal set up, Chapter one is devoted to a brief summary of the progress of source s keep and signifi fundamentt take downts that had force on his policy-making convictions.Chapter one also pre dis indues secondground information around Animal Farm. Chapter two is devoted to ridicule. In this chapter, explanation of satire is presented and some important characteristics of satire are discussed. In chapter triple, the method of this question is described. Under the light of information presented in the previous chapters, Chapter four discusses Animal Farm and focuses on the book as a policy-making satire. The last chapter presents the conclusion of this study .I would first like to express my echt thanks to my thesis supervisor, Assoc.Prof. Dr. Jashua M. Bear for his aid and freedom he gave me in this study. Without his judgment this thesis would never cast off been completed.I also wish to thank my baby Fidan Korkut for her suggestions in the planning stage of this study and her endurance during my long study age at home.My special thanks go to +zg r Ceylan, who constantly granted me her honourable support. She was perpetually on that point when I infallible her.PresentationThis chapter introduces general information about George Orwell s life. It includes chronological progress of his life and his political convictions. Furthermore, important events, such as The Russian Revolution and The Spanish urbane state of fightfare which had significant influence on his commitment to write Animal Farm entrust be discussed. Lastly, general information about Animal Farm will be given.His LifeThe British indite George Orwell, pen name of Eric Arthur Blair, was born in Motihari, India, June 25, 1903. His father was an important British well-mannered servant in India, which was thence part of the British Empire. A few eld after Eric was born, he retired on a low pension and moved back to England. Though their income was not much enough, the Blair family sent their son away to boarding teach which was an exclusive preparatory teach, to prepare him for Eton Collage. Eric then won a scholarship to Eton Collage. During his study from the age of eight to eighteen, as he wrote in his essay about his school begets titled Such, Such Were the Joys, he experience more things about the world where the autochthonic necessities were money, titled relatives, athleticism, tailor- do clothes, inequality, heaviness and class distinctions in the schools of England (In Ball,1984). after fightd the teaching method at Eton College in England, Eric join the Indian Imperial Police in British-Ruled Burma in 1922. thither he witnessed oppression again, but this sequence he was looking at things from the top. Having served five grades in Burma, he resigned in 1927 and turned back to europium and lived in Paris for more than a year. Though he wrote novels and short stories he prove nobody to get them produce. He worked as a tutor and even as a dishwasher in Paris. During his poor long time in Paris, he once more experienced the problems of the oppressed, the missed and lower class people.In 1933, aft(prenominal) having m all experiences about the life at the bottom of conjunction, he wrote Down and aside in Paris and London and published it under his pen name George Orwell. aft(prenominal) a year in 1934 he published his novel Burmese Days, which he reflected his experiences there. Then, he published A reverend s Daughter in 1935, and throttle the Aspidistra Flying in 1936.In 1936, his publisher wanted Orwell to go to the face coal-mining country and write about it which was an separate(pre nominal) important experience in his life. He wrote The Road to Wigan Pier to reflect what he saw there, the real poverty of people of the Lancashire Town of Wigan, and published it in 1937 (Ball, 1984).1937 was the year that Orwell who for some time had been describing himself as pro-socialist (BALL, 1984) joined the Republican forces in the Spanish elegant fight. When the Communists attempted to eliminate their allies on the far left, he fought against them and was weakened in the competitiveness, later was constrained to flee for his life. His experience in this war was to have the close to significant impact on his political thoughts and his later works.In 1938, Orwell wrote Homage to Catalonia, which recounts his experiences fighting for the Republicans in the Spanish polite War. iodin of his best-known books reflecting his lifelong distrust of dominating political science, whether of the left or right, Animal Farm, a modern beast-fable attacking Russian Revolution, sho gunate and totalitarianism, was published in 1945, and Nineteen Eighty-Four, a dystopian novel setting forward his fears of an intrusively bureaucratised state of the future was published in 1949. His first fame was brought by these two novels and they were the hardly ones which made a profit for him as a writer (Ball,1984).Orwell died at the first age of forty-seven of a unheeded lung ailment in London, Jan. 21, 1950.His Time policy-making BackgroundIn his essay why I Write, Orwell (1947) saysI do not think one can assess a writer s motives without knowing something of his early development. His subject yield will be determined by the age he lives in at least this is true in tumultuous, rotatory ages like our own Taking Orwell s his own words into consideration, in lay to get a better sagacity of his works and particularly of his political satire Animal Farm, we should look at his political convictions, and the historical context which influenced Orwell and inspired him to write. real few authors develop essays explaining the motivation base their writing. Orwell was of one them. Therefore in influence to understand his motivations, his essay Why I Write would be the near fascinate source to be looked at.Orwell was a political writer and according to him he was forced to be a writer by the circumstances under which he has hold out aware of his political loyalties. His Burma and Paris eld increased his natural hatred of liberty and made him aware of the existence of the operative classes.(Orwell, 1947)As mentioned above, he described himself as pro-Socialist. What he was longing for was a society in which there would be no class distinctions, and he named his ideal political orientation democratic socialism. He says either line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism (Orwell, 1947)There are two significant events that have great influence on Orwel l s political thoughts The Russian vicissitude that took place in the second decade of twentieth century and The Spanish Civil War in the midst of 1936 and 1939.The Russian Revolutionred ink Revolution of October 1917 was the first great renewal which aimed at to overthrow the owners of the means of production, that is capitalist Bourgeoisie, and to establish a state to be ruled by the on the job(p) class, the Proletariat. ideologic basis of the change was taken from the philosophical system of Karl Marx and Frederick Angels who believed that the history of the world was the history of a struggle amid classes- between judgement classes and ruled classes (Han erlio lu, 1976). Marx was very critical of industrial capitalist society in which there are many cruel injustices and men are exploited by men. out(a) of his analysis of Capitalist system, he win a vision of ending these injustices and establishing a society in which there would be no social classes and everybody would be equal. To him, in order to achieve this end the lone(prenominal) way was a change made by the working class or the Proletariat against the Bourgeoisie. after revolution working classes would own the means of production. Marx called the new order that would be set after revolution dictatorship of the Proletariat which eventually replaced with a classless society (Han erlio lu, 1976).In October 1917, V.I. Lenin, led the socialist (Bolshevik) revolution in Russia. After the revolution was a four-year crashing(a) cultured war. During this war Red Army of the revolution organised and headed by Leon Trotsky had to fight against both Russians who were loyal to Czar and foreign soldiers (The Academic American Encyclopaedia, 1995).After Lenin died in 1924, a struggle between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky started for the leadership of the Communist Party. Stalin gained priority over Trotsky and in 1925 Trotsky with several other members ousted from Politburo (the chief decision mak er and political committee of the Communist Party) in 1927 Trotsky and his followers expelled from Party Stalin took the control. Later Trotsky was exiled and in 1929 he was deported. In 1940 he was assassinated. During this period, Stalin always denounced Trotsky as a traitor (Ball, 1929).In the following years, Russia witnessed that Stalin started to take all originator only in his hands. In 1930 s, many people were arrested. After public trials most of the opposing elements were eliminated.Stalin has been accused of universe a very cruel dictator. However, Nikita Khrushchev, who ruled USSR between 1958-1964 and who was very critical of Stalin s crimes and non-human practices express in 1956 thatStalin believed that all his practices was necessary in order to defend the benefits of labourers. He looked at these practices from the view point of the benefit of socialism and labourers. Thus, we cannot define his practices as of a light cruel despot. Here, it is the all tragedy (H an erlio lu, 1979).The Spanish Civil WarIn 1936, oecumenic Francisco Franco led a military putsch in Spain, plunging the country into civil war. Franklin Rosemont in his article Spanish revolution of 1936 defines the rootage of the revolution as followsWhen Franco s fascist troops invaded Spain in July 1936 with the purpose of overthrowing the little and unstable Republic, the Spanish working class responded by making a revolution that went much further toward realising the classless and dispossessed ideal of proletarian socialism than any preceding popular revolt. Spontaneously and nigh overnight, workers seized factories and other workplaces land was collectivised workers reservess were organize throughout the country the church passe enemy of all working-class radicalism and indeed, openly profascist was dismantled, and its property confiscated established political institutions disintegrated or were taken over by workers committees (Rosemont, 1988).Yet, between 1936 and 1939 the military rising originating in Morocco, headed by General Francisco Franco, spreads rapidly all over the country, After a number of bloody battles in which fortunes changed from one side to the other. Finally, nationalist forces occupied the capital, Madrid, on March 28, 1939, and on April 1, General Franco officially ended the war (The Academic American Encyclopaedia).Orwell And The Spanish Civil WarDavid Ball (1984) points out three experiences in the Spanish Civil War that were important for Orwell atmosphere of Comradeship and measure, what happened to his cuss fighters and what happened when he returned to England and inform what he had seen.After spending very poor days in Paris, Orwell went to Spain to fight for the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War. When he arrived Barcelona, he found an elating atmosphere of Comradeship and respect. People were friendly and addressing each other comrade. To Orwell, relations in the militia group he joined were the identical and this made him feel that socialism was in action there.But later on, he was disappointed by what happened to his arm friends who were confined and killed by their own comrades who were of Communist-dominated elements of the Republican government that they were fighting for. Communists believed that the communist ideas were betrayed by the militia group that Orwell belonged to. After he was wounded Orwell went back to England for remedy and was saved from being killed by his comrades.When he returned England he reported what he witnessed in the war, but Socialists powerfully resisted to understand what he told about the practices of communists in Spain. The reason was that it was not the right time to publicise all these things while the war was going on and this information would misemploy Republican s position in the war. After this bad experience, he started to be more critical of British socialists and of communism. He wrote in his article The Spanish war and other events i n 1936-37 turned the outmatch and thereafter I knew where I stood. (Orwell, 1947)