Monday, September 30, 2019

Radio as medium of mass communication

Radio is widely used mass communication medium and has a great potentiality in dissemination of information as radio signals cover almost entire world. More than 177 radio stations are there across the country. Almost 97 percent of the population is reached by the radio. Radio being a convenient form of entertainment caters to a large audience. With the invention of transistors this medium has reached the common man in urban and rural areas of India but the utilization of radio is more among rural elites.It has advantages over the other mass media like television and newspapers in terms of being handy, portable, easily accessible and cheap. Radio is the most portable of the broadcast media, being easily accessible at home, at office, in car, on the street or beach, virtually anywhere and everywhere at any time. Radio is effective medium not only in informing the people but also in creating awareness regarding many social issues and need for social reformation, developing interest and initiating action.For example, in creating awareness regarding new policies, news about evelopmental projects and programs, new ideas etc. It will help in creating a positive climate for growth and development. It widens the horizons of the people and enlightens them, and gradually changing their outlook towards life. Research about this has shown that radio is an effective medium for education when it is followed up with group discussion and question- answer session. In India, radio with its penetration to the rural areas is becoming a powerful medium for advertisers.It gains 3 percent of the national advertising budget. Radio is still the heapest alternative to television, but it is no longer the poor medium in advertising terms. Because radio listening are so widespread, it is prospered as an advertising medium for reaching local audiences. Moreover, the radio serves small and highly targeted audiences, which makes radio an excellent advertising medium for many kinds of speciali zed products and services. As far as commercials are concerned, no one will able to tune out commercials easily as is possible with remote control devices and VCRs.It is said that radio's ability to ttract local advertisers hurts mainly newspapers, as television is less attractive to the small and local advertiser. As tar as audience is concerned radio does not hamper persons mobility. Radio as a vehicle of information for masses it is still the fastest medium of communication. For instance, it would take less time for a news reporter for radio to arrive on the spot with a microphone and recorder than the same for TV along with a shooting team and equipment.Another important feature of radio as mass medium is that it caters to a large rural opulation which has no access to TV and where there is no power supply. In such places, AIR-AII India Radio's programmes continue to be the only source of information and entertainment. AIR broadcasts programmes in 24 languages and 140 dialects. â€Å"Radio should be treated as a kin to newspapers in view of the fact that it is local, inexpensive, linked to communities, has limited band width and operates through simple technology'. The economics of radio does allow tailoring programme content to the needs of small audiences.Thus it is economically viable to recast a programme for broadcast to audiences in different sub regional, cultural and linguistic language. This enhances the value of radio as a medium in networking developmental programmes. It offers many possibilities in networking, from local or regional co- ordinated broadcasts and interactive exchange of queries and data. It will serve as a standalone medium of information dissemination or a support medium for curricular learning, Jointly with print material or with fieldwork.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Conselling in Schools Essay

A critical examination of Person Centred Counselling and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy applied to a secondary school context. This piece of work will aim to also consider how aspects of these two approaches of counselling could be applied to support students during their journey through adolescence as well as secondary education. The role of the teacher is one that is very complicated. Often the person who stands before a class of students must wear many different hats if they are to be regarded as a good teacher. OfSTED have tried numerous times over the last two decades to describe what an outstanding teacher is. These judgements have often been based on an impromptu visit to a school once every three to five years where they visit a teacher for up to 20 minutes. Although the inspection criteria have changed somewhat since its initial implementation, it still remains, in my view as a teacher, very staged. In a review of Counselling in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, William Baginsky comments in retrospect that the Education Reform Act 1988, has resulted in teachers and pupils being valued in terms of performance indicators and a move away from a concern with pupils’ personal and social development. Robson et al. (1999), Teachers are acutely aware of the emphasis on the academic side of the curriculum-their (students) whole life seems to be pressure, course work, test, homework. McLaughlin (1999) The role of the teacher often extends beyond lesson observation criteria where they can be labelled one of four levels. What OfSTED are unable to measure in a quantifiable manner is the complex relationship between the member of staff and the students. Often in my practice I wondered how come some teachers were just better at controlling a class or they seemed more â€Å"liked† by the students. I would listen in amazement in the staffroom how some teachers had a wonderful working and purposeful relation with some students yet I had very little success with them. Having reflected on these stories I found a similar pattern. These teachers were displaying counselling skills that allowed them to build up a trust and understanding with the students. What I was not sure of was whether they were using these skills naturally or if they had developed them. I have a belief that with time teachers do develop sound counselling skills in order to support the students they work with. In the paper by McLaughlin (2007) her literature review discusses evidence to suggest that that all teachers should have first-level counselling skills, i. e. should be able to listen to pupils and to react to and respond in the emotional domain (Lang, 1993; Hamblin, 1978). Others would suggest that teachers sometimes use the word counselling to encompass activities that professional counsellors would surely not consider to be counselling at all. These include careers interviews, ad hoc advice, and crisis conversations in the corridor (Mosley, 1993) The purpose of this paper is to consider two types of counselling approaches and consider how elements of these approaches could be developed in my role as a secondary school teacher. To Carl Rogers counselling is about a special relationship that is established between the counsellor and the client- where two people sitting in the same room, the client ‘struggling to be himself’. Rogers C (1942) Rogers then goes on to suggest that counselling is about ‘the intricate, delicate web of growth which is taking place with the emergence of a self, person’. This idea of growth and actualisation was based on the humanistic approach of Maslow who is famous for his hierarchy of needs. The Actualising Tendency complements Maslow’s hierarchy of needs by attempting to explain the motivation behind a person’s desire to better their self. Rogers stated that the person-centred approach is built on a basic trust in the person (It) depends on the actualizing tendency present in every living organisms’ tendency to grow, to develop, to realize its full potential. (Rogers, 1986) Rogers’ strong belief in the actualising tendency is evident in client-centred therapy, where the client is free to choose any directions, but actually selects positive and constructive pathways. This can only be explained in terms of a directional tendency inherent in the human organism-a tendency to grow, to develop, to realize its full potential. (Rogers, 1986) The aim of the Person Centred Therapy approach it can be argued is to create the right conditions for someone to feel actualised during therapy. There is a parallel between the work of the therapist in such a condition and the classrooms within which teachers operate. Education aims to develop the skills of the students in order for them to be able to fulfil their ambitions, or to strengthen this actualising tendency which lives within every child. As many of my colleagues will agree, the desire to self-actualise is stronger in some children than others. As a result of certain episodes in their personal lives some students become more engaged with education while others seem to become less engaged the older they get. This phenomenon can be in part explained by the Rogers’ explanation of Conditions of Worth. This is when a person alters their true self in order to receive positive regard from others. According to Rogers in order to become a fully functioning person we need to experience unconditional positive regard: feeling loved and worthy no matter what. â€Å"Conditions of worth† are the â€Å"requirements’ set forth by parents or significant others for â€Å"earning† their positive regard (love). A person that has received unconditional positive regard is confident in his/her value and can live a healthy existence. Throughout school and students are always victims of what teachers create as conditions of worth. As a teacher I am guilty of creating such an environment. Education seems to only be concerned with the high achievers. This is clearly seen in the standardised measure of success for schools which is the A*-C headline figure. For those students who do not fall in this bracket their self-esteem takes an irreparable dent. The worry is that these students have spent the whole of the secondary schooling in a state of anxiety. Unable to seek help or reassurances that the imposed condition of worth by the education system is not a true reflection of their inner self and they have become disengaged with education. The benefits of schooling can be surprisingly long lasting. It is crucial to appreciate that these long-term benefits rely on both effects on cognitive performance and effects of self-esteem and self-efficacy. School experiences of both academic and non-academic kinds can have a protective effect for children under stress and living otherwise unrewarding lives. Schools are about social experiences as well as scholastic learning. Rutter (1991) As a teacher I faced an inner conflict when dealing with students who I knew were disengaged. I wanted to reflect an Unconditional Positive Regard for the student allowing myself to positively regard the individual (though not necessarily the individual’s behaviours) unconditionally, but I was governed by the culture of the school and the education system. I was forced to sanction one student for the wrong behaviour and reward another for the correct behaviour thus doing a disservice to both students. For one student I was reinforcing a condition of worth which alters the true self in order to receive positive regard from the teacher, while for the other student I was further disengaging them by sanctioning their behaviour rather than having the time to fully discuss and support them to better themselves and as a by-product their behaviour also. Often as a teacher when dealing with students I would often offer the opportunity for them to make their own choices. This was particularly evident during option evenings where students would be accompanied by their parents. It is a common theme amongst these events that majority of the time the parents and the student’s do not always agree on what subjects to choose, or the student chooses a subject which they have been unknowingly pressured into by wanting to please their parents to satisfy a condition of worth. As Rogers would suggest the external pressure on the person is overbearing on their inner trust to do what they want. This phenomenon Rogers explained through the Locus of Evaluation. Some students with a strong internal locus of evaluation would be confident in choosing the subject that they truly wanted to choose. Often t I observed that students would prefer creative subjects such as Art, Music or Drama. The parents would suggest otherwise opting for what they felt was more appropriate disregarding what the student truly wanted to do. For those students with a strong external locus of evaluation they would succumb to the pressures by those they wanted to please the most, their parents. As an adolescent undertaking the transition from childhood towards adulthood, it can be one of discovery. These discoveries are not always pleasant or hard to come to terms with. The fully functioning person is one who has achieved openness to feelings and experiences and has learned to trust inner urges and intuitions Rogers (1961). Learning to trust these inner feelings is difficult at such a young age. Indeed I would argue adults would struggle with such a concept. According to Rogers, experiences that match the self-image are symbolised (admitted to consciousness) and contribute to gradual changes in the self. Information or feelings inconsistent with the self-image are said to be incongruent. For example it would be incongruent for a student to think of themselves as good at Art when all of their class colleagues keep telling them how poor their work is. Such experiences which are seriously incongruent with the self-image can be threatening. By denying these experiences it prevents the young adult from changing and creates a gap between their inner self image and reality. As a result the incongruent person becomes confused, vulnerable and dissatisfied. The complex social interaction between students during the school day can have a lasting effect on life and academic success. Some students would greatly benefit from support with dealing with the anxieties and pressures of the school day. Counselling into schools is not a new phenomenon. In the review by William Baginsky (2007) he suggested that in 1963 the Newsom Report, looking at education for children in the lower streams of secondary schools, recommended the appointment of school counsellors. In the same year, the National Association for Mental Health held a seminar at which the relationship between schools and counselling was discussed (King, 1999). There followed, from 1965, the establishment of courses at the Universities of Keele and Reading to train people with a minimum of five years’ teaching experience to be school counsellors (Bor et al. , 2002). Such initiatives are very commendable but the person centred counselling approach requires the client to want to change. The client has to want to come for counselling in order to face their anxieties and therein enter the Core Conditions as Rogers explains. Students cannot be forced into counselling in mainstream education. But for some it seems that they would value someone who is prepared to engage with them under the Core Conditions. The following quote is taken directly from a study in a secondary school which demonstrates the need for Person Centred Approach and how suitable it is in this context. ‘Students did want to talk about problems at home but they had no real expectations of staff being able to solve them. On the whole they just needed to air them. (McLaughlin et al. , 1995). In afore mentioned review by William Baginsky his review suggests that Rogers’ Person Centred Model easily lends itself perfectly to the school context because of its understanding of conflict between the ‘real self’ and the ‘self-concept’ and the positive experiences provided for clients through ‘empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard’. This was also the approach adopted by school counsellors of the 1960s and 1970s (McLaughlin, 1999) If teachers were to truly embrace the fundamentals of PCT they would have to face a crisis of their own. A helper who engages with a client under the core conditions of PCT are expected to remain completely impartial. By this I mean that they must not guide the client towards what they feel is the right route. For example when dealing with poor behaviour there should be respect and no judgment, however bad the behaviour, thus separating the person from the bad behaviour Gatongi (2007). Potentially this could lead to a situation where bad behaviour is not sanctioned and consequently send out wrong signals to other students. Not to mention parents and local authorities. It is also interesting to mention Rogers’ view on education. Rogers applied some of the experiences he learned from his work with adults to form a view on the way education should be practised. His humanistic views on education claimed that a person cannot teach another person directly; a person can only facilitate another’s learning (Rogers, 1951). This is a result of Rogers’ work on Personality Theory. This states that we as human beings exist in a constantly changing world of experience where we are at the centre. Rogers believed that what the student does is more important than what the teacher does, meaning that the individual experiences of the learner is essential to what is learned. The instructor should be open to learning from the students and also working to connect the students to the subject matter. Frequent interaction with the students will help achieve this goal. The instructor’s acceptance of being a mentor who guides rather than the expert who tells is instrumental to student-centred, nonthreatening, and unforced learning. (Rogers 1951). Reflecting on these paragraphs remind me that these are the reason why I initially entered into this profession. I value above all else the relationship between myself as the teacher and the student. In a very similar way in which the relationship between the client and person centred therapist is so crucial to the wellbeing of the client and valued above all else by the therapist. In a dialogue by Haugh and Paul it is discussed that it is accepted beyond doubt that the therapeutic conditions developed by Rogers are important factors in the success of all approaches. Furthermore it is suggested that client motivation is a much more significant predictor of outcome than therapist attitude or use of methods, Cooper (2008). For some clients they feel that the work by Rogers does not offer them the ability to measure progress in terms of their wellbeing or ability to change their behaviour. Cognitive-behavioural therapies for works in schools because its theoretical underpinning and therapeutic process are consistent with what pupils are already familiar with in school in approaches to the handling of ideas and study, Platts and Williamson (2000) Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is derived from Aaron Beck’s cognitive model in 1976. This work has been developed to cater for many different situations and conditions. It is the most widely used method of counselling therapy in the National Health Service. According to the Royal College of Psychiatrists (RCP) CBT can help how an individual thinks (cognitive) and what they do (behaviour). Unlike Psychodynamic counselling therapy which focusses on causes of distress in the past, it searches for ways to improve the clients’ state of mind in the present moment. CBT circles around what is described by the RCP as a vicious circle of four elements. The first of these elements is the situation. For some people a simple encounter in a street can trigger off Automatic Negative Thoughts. This leads to the person feeling low, sad and rejected. These feelings can then be manifested through physical pain such as stomach cramps. The final element is the action which is the person becoming more withdrawn and avoiding situations similar to the trigger incident. For some this simplified sequence can lead to depression. Aaron Beck recognised this pattern of events in his studies concerned with depression. Beck’s work claims that emotions are not produced by events but rather by interpretation of events. Through the interpretation of these events our minds begin to build up beliefs about ourselves. Beck found that depressed patients tended to avoid the situations that involved rejection or disapproval Squires (2001). For students this could mean truanting or the avoidance of school altogether. The beliefs that an individual then builds up about themselves can direct behaviour. It can cause an individual to enter an unconditional state of mind where they think of themselves as worthless. This can lead to medical implications which are manifested both physically and mentally. For many school children they are conditioned by culture and the education system that â€Å"I must do well in everything I do, otherwise I will be a failure†. This perception is one that I have witnessed first-hand on the numerous results day with which I have been involved. The tears and anxiety that was evident across the faces of these young adults was in essence my doing as a teacher. I had unwillingly conditioned them to value results above all else and for those who did not achieve I also set them up for a situation where they have to face their academic shortcomings. This situation can be described as a critical incident and is said to activate a dysfunctional belief which then produces negative automatic thoughts. The young adults are then left feeling â€Å"I am a failure, there’s no point doing anything! † This attitude occurs in every lesson. Student’s often lack the resolve to improve their own learning is not down to them not wanting to learn but more the fear of failure and the situation where their own dysfunctional beliefs produces negative thoughts. The frustration of these students is then exhibited through poor behaviour. Research indicates that CBT can be applied to students for whom behaviour is regarded an issue. One of the main strength of CBT is that it is very much lead by the therapist. There is a strict time limit where there are outcomes to be achieved and targets to be met before the next session. This is different to the therapy offered by the work of Carl Rogers which has also been identified as successful in a school context Baginsky (2004). Goals are clearly specified, decisions are made on how to best meet those goals and how to measure progress towards the goals to provide feedback Squires (2001). This approach is beneficial to school as it allows them to measure progress of the students. The progress can be measured through the amount of behaviour referrals one student may face throughout the school day. Bush (1996) suggests that CBT works because it sticks to the point, it is structured and it is focused. The main advantage of CBT is its adaptability to a number of situations. In schools its use is not only concerned with dealing or supporting poor behaviour of students. As the education system is resistant to migrate from the rigid examination process, I believe that CBT would be very useful in helping students to deal with the anxieties and pressures of exams. In such an instance it could be argued that the aim of CBT is to help the child to identify possible cognitive deficits and distortions, to reality-test them, and then to teach new skills or challenge irrational thoughts and beliefs, and replace them with more rational thinking (Kendall 1990). The CBT model is particularly useful as it involves the young adult to: (a) Recognise anxious feelings and bodily reactions to anxiety, (b) it helps to clarify thoughts or the mental process in anxiety provoking situations, (c) it allows the young adult to develop coping skills such as modifying self-anxious talk into coping self-talk (d) it allows to evaluate outcomes. The training methods involve realistic role plays where the client and counsellor are able to model actual life situations. The behavioural treatment is based upon the belief that fear and anxiety are learnt responses, that have been conditioned, and therefore these can be unlearned. CBT has been particularly helpful in helping students to deal with their own behaviour. Teachers would argue that there may be the link (although a weak one) between poor student behaviour and teacher wellbeing Hastings and Bham (2003). As a result school resources are often implemented to correct poor behaviour. There is also numerous research to justify that poor behaviour effects overall academic achievement. Poor academic performance is related to the onset, frequency, persistence, and seriousness of delinquent offending in both boys and girls. Higher academic performance, conversely, is associated with refraining or desisting from offending (Maguin & Loeber, 1996). In one study by squires he states that CBT can be used to support students with behavioural problems. In this research he concluded that with a six hour period of CBT counselling there had been improvements in the student behaviour. The students selected portrayed the necessary anxieties that would benefit from a period of CBT. Although this study is not conclusive it does support the belief that CBT can be used to improve self-control for students with behavioural difficulties. One particular quote from the study I believe demonstrates the benefit of CBT counselling: â€Å"I am able to talk about my feelings†. This for the student was a sign of real progress, which is one of the main advantages of CBT. Despite such quotes out of the 23 students that embarked on the counselling six did not complete the full sessions. This demonstrates that for some CBT is not their preferred type of counselling so it’s not a case of one method suits all. It is worth noting that these students were selected by their teachers rather than volunteering. Overall it can be argued that the research was successful in demonstrating that counselling can have a positive impact on student behaviour. I am certain that if more of the students that I worked with had the access to counselling or the opportunity to chat to members of staff then they may have had more rewarding experience of school. I am not suggesting that staff did not offer their support when students came knocking on the classroom door, but rather that they were not encouraged to do so. Teacher training I believe is in part to blame for this culture. As teachers we have been trained to teach in a very prescriptive manner focusing on the final products which in all cases are exam results. In order to achieve these exam results and avoid any external pressures and inquisitions we develop a routine of lessons which are planned to endure the students is prepared to achieve a target grade in that particular subject. Students are supported in school in order to achieve this singular objective. As a form tutor I valued the pastoral support that I was able to offer to my students. I indeed loved this role enormously as it was a rare opportunity to talk to students about what they wanted and not about what I had to cover in my syllabus. In a very cynic viewpoint, I believe that pastoral support was provided in order to support students to pass their exams and secondly to help with the day to day school life. It has been suggested that the psychological climate of many schools is now more akin to frightened organisations. These organisations live in fear of public punishment which stifles risk-taking despite hard work and the introduction of new initiatives. Watkins (1999) I am aware that for some students Person Centred Therapy may not work while for others they may be more responsive to Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. I am confident that counselling has a very important role to play in education. There have been many models of counselling implemented in schools over the last half century. Twelve different models of counselling service provision are mentioned in a review commissioned by the Welsh Assembly Group when reviewing counselling into schools. Of the twelve mentioned I am familiar with three of the models mentioned. The school where I was employed had access to the services provided by the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. Their support was mainly accessed primarily through referrals from the school although the procedures were not always clear. Form tutors would not always be informed of tutees who would be working with the CAMHS group. Multi agency teams similar to the Behaviour and Education Support Teams also operated in conjunction with the local authority but it was again unclear how a child was referred to these sorts of support schemes. Although the school nurses made themselves known to the students counselling was not always a service that they readily advertised. This lack of awareness of counselling opportunities in my previous school does not seem to be an isolated incident. Indeed this is a recurring pattern, possibly explained by the findings of Welsh Assembly Group’ Review. During their research it became apparent that some school offered very little in terms of counselling. In quite a number of cases the counselling was covered by teaching staff or an external agency. Of the recommendations offered by the review the following statement is one that I can draw comparisons with from my previous experience. The lack of awareness on behalf of the teaching staff and also students made counselling almost a forgotten form of support. â€Å"Information about services must be readily available and informative, and referral systems must be developed that ensure the service is easily accessible to potential clients and their referrers. A school ethos in which counselling is understood as a professional activity and which regards counselling as an important part of its student support services is essential† As a teacher I value above all else the support that I am able to offer the student. Having embarked on this particular module I discovered that my profession required for me to display counselling skills. These were taken for granted that if I was to work with children that I should somehow possess these skills. These personal feelings were echoed before I embarked on my PGCE by researcher where it was claimed that in recent years there has been more concern in schools about cognitive, rather than psychosocial, development Lloyd (1999), I am a firm believer that skills can be taught and I begin to question why I was never offered the opportunity to develop counselling skills during my PGCE or further in my career in CPD sessions. The Welsh Assembly Group allude to budgets and lack of finance as a possible reason as to why these opportunities were never offered in schools. Budget allocations are the responsibility of the headmasters and above all else what they are most concerned with are grades. In the meantime all I can offer a student is guidance and an opportunity to listen to them and to not hijack the conversation or steer it away from their chosen topic. So therefore it would be foolish of me to expect sudden changes once I return to secondary teaching. Indeed I do not expect to see school counsellors in whichever school I will teach in. As with many education innovations it seems that there are pioneers full of good intention but lacking the support and strategies to get them to the Promised Land Robinson (1995) References Baginsky, M. (2004). Peer support: expectations and realities. Pastoral Care in Education, 22 1: 3-9. Baginsky, W. (2004): School Counselling in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: A Review: NSPCC Information Briefings Beck, A. T. (1976) Cognitive Therapy and Emotional Disorders. New York: New American Library Bor R. , Ebner-Landy J. , Gill S and Brace C (2002) Counselling in schools. London: Sage Publications. Bush, J. W. (1996). CBT—The Therapy Most Likely to Reward Your Hopes for a Better Life http://www. cognitivetherapy. com/ last accessed 21. 02. 2012 Cooper M, (2008) Essential research findings in counselling and psychotherapy: The facts are friendly. London: Sage. 2008: 307-390 Gatongi. F(2007) : Person-centred approach in schools: Is it the answer to disruptive behaviour in our classrooms? Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 20:2,pp 205-211 Hamblin D (1974) The teacher and counselling. Oxford: Blackwell. Hastings, R. , P. & Bham M, (2003) The Relationship between Student Behaviour Patterns and Teacher Burnout School Psychology International 2003 24:1pp 115-126 Kendall P, C. , (1996) Long-term follow -up of a cognitive-behavioural therapy for anxiety-disordered youth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology; 64:7 pp24–30 King G (1999) Counselling skills for teachers: talking matters. Buckingham: Open University Press. Lang P (1999) Counselling, counselling skills and encouraging pupils to talk: clarifying and addressing confusion. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling 27:1 pp 23-33. Lloyd G (1999) Ethical and supervision issues in the use of counselling and other helping skills with children and young people in school. Pastoral Care September 1999 Maguin, E. , & Loeber, R. (1996). Academic performance and delinquency. In M. Tonry (Ed. ), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 20, pp. 145-264). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Marsick, J. , V. ,Watkins, E. , K. , (1999) â€Å"Looking again at learning in the learning organization: a tool that can turn into a weapon! â€Å", The Learning Organisation, 6: 5, pp. 207 – 211 McLaughlin, C (1999) Counselling in schools: looking back and looking forward. British Journal of Counselling and Guidance 27:1 pp 13-22. Mosley, J (1993) Is there a place for counselling in schools? Counselling May 1993 pp 104-105. Platts J and Williamson Y (2000) The use of cognitive-behavioural therapy for counselling in schools. In N Barwick Clinical counselling in schools. London: Routledge. Robinson B D (1996) School counsellors in England and Wales, 1965-1995; a flawed innovation? Pastoral Care in Education 14:3 pp 12-19. Robson M, Cohen N and McGuiness J (1999) Counselling, careers education and pastoral care: beyond the National Curriculum. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling 27:1 pp 5-11. Rogers, C. (1942). Counseling and psychotherapy. Boston, MA, Houghton Mifflin Rogers, C. (1951). Client Centred Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Rogers, C (1961) On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Squires G (2001) Using cognitive behavioural psychology with groups of pupils to improve self-control of behaviour. Educational Psychology in Practice 17:4 pp 317-327. Trower, P. Casey, A. Dryden, W. (1999) Cognitive-Behavioural Counselling in Action. London: Sage.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Groups and Teams in the Contemporary Organizations Essay

Groups and Teams in the Contemporary Organizations - Essay Example It has also made the top management realize that if proper undertakings within these domains are made, there is no doubt that the groups and teams would bring in more success and higher profits. The only shortcoming, however, lies in the ideology that these groups and teams have a number of different problems, all of which will be mentioned within the length of this paper. This paper takes a concise look at how the groups and teams in the contemporary business world have played their quintessential role and what these roles have meant to the different business quarters, not to forget the grave issues which have surfaced for quite a period of time now. The groups and teams within the aegis of an organization have meant that the company accepts that shared efforts are important in order to have goals achieved and objectives accomplished, for the sake of the said company. This is a reality that has dawned upon the modern day organizations because these organizations have understood the ideology of team formation and how these can bring success for the sake of the whole company. The formation of teams within an organization signifies the need for a collective thought that can envision success domains within a short-term time period or a duration that is geared to meet the needs and challenges within the long run. However one thing is certain – the organization by now has understood the premise of having groups and teams within its aegis, which will essentially play a very solid role at convincing its own people that individual efforts are not worth and that groups and teams would bring about more sanity and be strengthening effects for the sake of the company.  

Friday, September 27, 2019

RENAULT ACQUIRES NISSAN Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

RENAULT ACQUIRES NISSAN - Essay Example oblems for the management such as language problems, culture difference and also there was a lot of physical gap between both the countries physical process and also attributes of people. The alliance between both the companies did prove to be profitable for both the companies as Renault used Nissan plant in Mexico to build cars and Nissan used Renault’s plant in Brazil and also there distribution networks (RENAULT, 2014). But in the starting the management of the company faced a lot of problems related to the cultural difference among the two companies and in bringing together both the companies to work together. In 2005 Carlos Ghosn was appointed as the CEO for both the companies and the major task in front of him was to overcome the cultural differences. He was the leader of Renault which was a French company and the management of employees was easy their and he was a successful leader then, but the scenario was completely different in Nissan as it was a Japanese company. T he culture in the Japanese organizations are completely different as people in Japan look to work individually having a individualistic characteristics on the other which affected the company to work as a single organization as all the departments used to perform their duties in the perfect way but when the different department were made to work together the output used to never be a good one as there was no team work and unity among the employees. On the same way When Carlos started to close all the additional plants of Nissan and also shutting down the assembly lines to make it more concentrated process was not liked by the employees as Japanese people believe over lifetime employability plans so for them this was a big change that was made (Nissan Motor Corporation, 2014). Carlos also got the cultural difference in Nissan in the form of promotion where in his previous environment promotions were made based on the performance whereas in Japanese organization the promotions were ma de based

Thursday, September 26, 2019

International Financial Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

International Financial Management - Assignment Example Hedging is one feature of the forward market. MNC’s. Hedging the amount that they are supposed to receive or pay in foreign currency will make the spot rate unimportant for them till their future payment. There is very little difference between the forward and future market. But the differences are very important. Unlike the forward market, which is characterized by personalized contracts with no initial payment necessary, future market have standardized contracts with at least marginal payment paid initially. This implies that the amount that is being transacted can be of any value. Future contracts specify the volume of a particular currency to be used for transaction at the specified date. Secondly, for forward contracts there is no organized exchange present in the future contracts as the contracting parties directly do the transactions. Thirdly, the contract size depends on the contracting parties in case of the forward contracts. But, for the future contracts, contract s ize is standardized. Fourthly, future contracts are government- regulated and bears low risk while forward contracts are unregulated and are high-risk bearing as there are chances of default. (Madura 2009, pp. 108-110)   Speculators purchase currency futures to capitalize their expectation about the ups and downs associated with respect to currency movement. Suppose a speculator expects appreciation of a particular currency in the future. They can then buy future contracts and hence lock the price of that currency for a specific settlement date. On this date they can buy their currency at a rate specified in the futures contract and sell it at the spot rate, which is less than the rate specified in the futures contract. If  the spot rate has appreciated, then they extract profit. Different expectations of the speculators guide their decisions to sell and purchase future contracts. Corporations use currency futures to hedge and thus reduce their

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

How technology is changing the way people commicate with one another Research Paper

How technology is changing the way people commicate with one another and conduct business - Research Paper Example Communication is one of the most important aspects in every society and it has been made easier and flexible by technology. Moreover, many people have been attracted to the business world because technology has made business transactions to become flexible and easier. Today, individuals can easily communicate or conduct business with anyone from any part of the world. This paper explores about ten academic sources to provide a thoughtful discussion on the possible impacts of communication and information technology on communication and business transactions. The first section of this paper is the introduction, and then the focus is on the how technology has changed how societal members communicate and conduct business followed by the conclusion. Today, smartphones, computers, laptops, and internet have formed part of our lives due to the development and advancement in technology. Advances in communication technology including computers and some software have enabled a significant shift in the way individuals or businesses communicate (Sinnreich, 2010). Technology is everywhere and it has completely revolutionized almost all aspects of our lives including the way we work, communicate, interact, and conduct business among others. It is the greatest change agents of the civilization of mankind since its development. Most people depend on various technological devices in order to perform their duties in the business environment. The most important aspect about technology is how it has helped us stay in touch with each other. For instance, today people can easily engage in various conversations at the same time and also individuals can communicate with others in the external world. This is a good thing especially for the busines s environment because it makes business transactions to be carried out faster and easily. There is rapid change in the social media and is establishing new trends

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Reading research literature Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Reading research literature - Coursework Example Yes. The author indicated that the aim of this research was to identify some of the non-linear decision making process caregiver articulates when it comes to decision making to people with heart failure in which the members of the family can’t take it anymore. This journal has been written using scientific terms correctly and this confirms that the journal is peer-reviewed. In addition, the journal also has got the editorial board. In consideration of this statement â€Å"Heart failure (HF) is a major cardiovascular problem and the number of people living with HF continues to climb. Throughout the illness continuum, patients and their family caregivers are involved in decision making. As the illness worsens and patients can no longer make decisions, decision making becomes the responsibility of their caregivers who may have little preparation for the role† we articulate that this journal is peer reviewed. No. the author is trying to give ways possible ways and the importance of caregivers in our society and therefore his line of interest is to pass an information rather than gainig financial from the results of this study. This study indicates that a number of patients with heart failure suffers a lot especially at that point that their members can’t take it more. 90 percent of the total population usually lives the burden to caregivers who in turn tries to help this people at their level best. The strengths of this sample is that it has tried to find ways in which the position of a caregiver should be taken into account though possessing one important weakness in that it does not account all area pertaining the subject. Yes and simply because heart failure (HF) is a major cardiovascular problem and the number of people living with HF and this issue requires special attention to both practitioners and medical fraternity as a whole. The following questions pertain to: Schwarz, K., Mion, P., Hudock, D., &Litman, G. (2008). Telemonitoring of heart

Monday, September 23, 2019

Week 2 - Journal - Reflections on Education Policy Coursework

Week 2 - Journal - Reflections on Education Policy - Coursework Example Such observations arise from the high cost of education coupled with the pressure arising from their poor backgrounds. President George Bush’s administration introduced the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001. The act remains the most recent and effective policy that seeks to address the problem by increasing funding to the education sector thereby supporting K-12 schooling in the country (Meier & Wood, 2004). The policy has made basic education affordable thus encouraging millions of American children from poor backgrounds to learn and develop careers. Following the formulation and implementation of the policy, the number of students has increased in numerous schools throughout the country. Prior to reading this week’s reading assignment, I believed the poverty was a major contributor to the rising cases of school dropouts. The week’s assignment proved my thoughts and showed that the government appreciated such social impediments to education thereby formulating and implementing laws that sought to provide every individual of a school going age with an opportunity to attend school and acquire appropriate grades capable of improving the quality of their

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Rosemarie Zagarri, A Woman's Dilemma Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Rosemarie Zagarri, A Woman's Dilemma - Essay Example The term was first used in the US, and it was referred to as measures that were to be taken to conquer discrimination across the state. In the Woman’s Dilemma by Zagarri, the affirmative actions were practiced to promote equality and fight the dilemma, to promote their representation in the government institution. The position of women in the government institution has been questionable in the past centuries. However, in the 18 centuries factors such as enlightenment ideas towards women came up. Furthermore, issue of equality, the women’s natural rights, women voting and involvement in politics challenged the assumption. We notice that the women abilities in the political field are being reviewed in a positive way. Women received insufficient support to be part of the formal political world. Indeed, this has been a dilemma to women, most nations across the globe have been committed to equality and yet women have been excluded from the government position in the politica l field (165). However, ensuring that women are empowered in field of political will give the community an opportunity to learn and make every person to be responsible in ensuring democracy. In addition, these questions are not only raised in the current century but they were also asked during war time as countries were fighting for independent. Women were majorly expected to be involved in domestic matters as well as material responsibility in their homes. Furthermore women were prevented from voting as a result of their mental deficiency, â€Å"deficiency in their mental power†. This is not the case to have mental deficient but because of their mode of life that prevents them from being in contact with the outside world. This cannot be a factor to consider that women can make it in the political fields (165). Women being given an opportunity to explore the world they are usually productive in the field. Across the globe positions held by women in the political field have be en productive compared to their male counterparts. When mental characteristic are taken as tools to determine that an individual has political capabilities rather than body features then women are not to be excluded from taking part in the political field. For instance Mrs. Catre in Zagarri (67) stated that sexes difference are minor and they should not be a tool to hinder women from participation in government positions â€Å"mere â€Å"sex†. Seeing it as a situation it is physical and has a minor essential for it to influence the caprice of civil position on the degree of an individual and in the leadership position. Education was doubtless to explain that women will expand their horizon and have a desire of being involved in the political field. In the year 1828, politicization in women was seen as a liability, women were viewed as weak and they cannot demonstrate leadership because of how they have been handled in the society since time in memorial. Women were not seen a s assets, and they were not able to contribute to the political climate which was divisive. However, this is not the case, enlightening women has brought them to get to understand the political environment and how to manage it. In the past society women were seen as inferior and could only manage an environment such as handling domestic chores. According to the writer, she tries to bring the context where the women were being defended from being involved in a harsh environment such as a political climate

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Therapy or no treatment Essay Example for Free

Therapy or no treatment Essay Introduction When we study human behavior, specifically focusing on the development of personality and crucial to how a person or individual conducts him/herself, psychology offers a variety of dimensions. The concept of personality is central to our attempt to understand ourselves and others and is part of the way in which we account for the differences that contribute to our individuality. Psychologists have been particularly concerned with shaping of the personality in relation to genetic and environmental influences. We have been fortunate that the study of human personality has been thriving and fruitful. We can choose from as many models we can to help us see ourselves better and maintain good relationships. Discussion Studies that reveal patients in improved psychological state with or without treatment or intervention may not be that good news for many in the mental health profession. However, the rationale for the kind of profession that they have is to help and the practice or professional help presupposes that skills and knowledge that had been gained are indispensable to speedy recovery, possible complications, and probable harm to the client himself and to others around him (Corey, 2004). ~Nature and Importance of therapy Behavior is described and analyzed. On this basis, an attempt to predict behavior is possible, and although this may not thoroughly and completely be accomplished in some endeavors, the basic understanding then is that there are certain expectations concerning how any person would act or decide upon things that are within his conscious awareness. Psychology is of great importance to man since psychological problems are common to group relations, in whatever framework a person or group of individuals come from. The goals of treatment for instance, using the psychodynamic model, include alleviating patient of the symptoms which specifically works to uncover and work through unconscious conflict. The task of psychodynamic therapy is â€Å"to make the unconscious conscious to the patient† (â€Å"Models of abnormality†, National Extension College Trust, Ltd). Employing the psychodynamic viewpoint, the therapist or social scientist believes that emotional conflicts, or neurosis, and/or disturbances in the mind are caused by unresolved conflicts which originated during childhood years. The treatment modality frequently used includes dreams and free association, at times hypnosis (as preferred by either the therapist or by the client). In the integrated or eclectic approach the goal of the therapy is not just relief to the patient or client. Although an immediate relief is very helpful, this may not always be the case in most illnesses. The goal as mentioned is to provide long-term reduction of the symptoms and the occurrence of the disease altogether if possible. The management then is not impossible but neither is this easy. Specifically, the counselee or patient must want to heal or believe that there is going to be curative effects in the process. It presupposes that he/she must learn to trust the therapist in his/her capabilities as well in leading or facilitating the changes or modifications. It is very much essential that (in the perspective of a cognitive-behaviorist) that the client understands ownership to the deeds and choices in thought patterns he/she made are crucial to the recurring or occurring condition that s/he experiences (Rubinstein et al., 2007; Corey, 2004). Moreover, the identification of specific treatments or interventions according to the diagnosed issue will be accommodated and implemented based on the chosen treatment modalities fit with the therapeutic approach utilized. It may be a single modality based on a single approach (e.g., learning principles and desensitization for a patient with specific phobias) or it maybe a combination of many modalities (CBT, Rogerian, Phenomenological, or Family systems) (Rubinstein et al., 2007; Corey, 2004). ~Promoting therapy Psychotherapists believe that therapy contributes a lot to the improvement of the psychological condition of the client (Snyder, 1994). Therapy can come in many varied forms and the use of these or any of these has been proven to be of vital significance to clients from various walks of life and with myriads of problems or mental and emotional challenges. Therapy may be long-termed analytical experiences or encounters or brief problem-oriented treatment/intervention. Whatever the case, these consultations and in-depth interactions and activities between a practitioner therapist and the client in most cases, are beneficial (Mutha, 2002). It is therefore wrong to argue that with or without treatment patients recover or improve because subtle issues are overlooked with this statement or findings. Firstly, studies were done with findings that were more correlational rather than experimental (Mutha, 2002). Secondly, the element of catharsis is a powerful ingredient or element of the healing process and many of those without seeking professional help happened to be with a support group whose experiences were years of gaining knowledge and skills from the experts and experienced counselors (Mutha, 2002). It is true that there have been substantial evidences as well that improvement with cases have occurred; these are usually attributed the aforementioned reasons. Specifically, psychotherapy enables a client or patient to help ease his anxiety, managing his fears from the mundane or petty to the horrific. Quality of life, wellness and recovery are primary goals aside from the usual notion that psychotherapy is just a crutch for someone who may not actually have a real psychological problem (Snyder et al, 2000). This last phrase is true for some people who needed more than the advice or the listening ear; precisely, they needed a human ace who is intent on knowing and understanding them. Reference: Atkinson, R.L., R.C. Atkinson, E.E Smith, D.J. Bem, and S. Nolen-Hoeksema. Introduction to Psychology. 13th Ed. New York: Harcourt College Publishers, 2000. Corey, Gerald, 2004. Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Thomson Learning, USA. Corey, Gerald.2001. The Art of Integrative Counseling. Article 29: â€Å"Designing an Integrative Approach to Counseling Practice† Retrieved November 28, 2007 in Crabb, Larry, 2000. Found in Anderson et al resource. Christ-centered therapy.,M1 C.R. Snyder et al., Hope Theory: Updating A Common Process for Psychological Change in Handbook of Psychological Change: Psychotherapy Processes Practices for the 21st Century 133 (C.R. Snyder Rick E. Ingram eds. 2000) C.R. Snyder, The Psychology of Hope: You Can Get There From Here (The Free Press 1994) Davison, Gerald C. and John M. Neale. 2001. Abnormal Psychology. Eighth ed. John Wiley Sons, Inc. Ellis, Albert 2001. Overcoming Destructive Beliefs, Feelings, and Behaviors: New Directions for Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Prometheus Books Kaplan, HI, BJ Saddock and JA Grebb. 1994. Kaplan and Saddock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences clinical psychiatry. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. Mutha, S., Allen, C., Welch, M. 2002. Toward Culturally Competent Care: A Toolbox for Teaching Communication Strategies. San Francisco: UCSF Center for the Health Professions.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Sexual Politics Kate Millet (1970)

Sexual Politics Kate Millet (1970) Sexual Politics Kate Millet (1970) Summary of document This article enables the reader to understand the difficulties of gaining equal rights and respect which women faced during the second wave of feminism (1970s). Though it can be possible for females to appear to have a higher class to some men due to the economic, social and educational purposes (Millet, 1970, p36). The writer suggests that the castelike status of a female within patriarchy is most liable for confusion (Millet, 1970, p36). This is due to the writer suggesting a two-tier caste system which meant despite some females may be born into a higher class then some males, it meant that due to the domination of sexual status, patriarchy society has been formed. There are two examples from the text which backs up the point that the writer was making. These are: a black lawyer has a higher status than a white farmer. However, race itself can be used in a caste system which overrides class. This means the white farmer belongs to a higher order of life just as it oppresses the pro fessional in spirit. Also, much of the literature between 1940s -1970s has shown the caste system towards male triumphs over the social status of wealthy and educated women. (Millet, 1970, p36) The writer also suggests that males use bullying and hostile remarks (Millet,1970, p36) as a psychological (Millet, 1970, p36) form of dominant power. Class divisions are not threatened by expressions of enmity or the existence of sexual hierarchy which has been reaffirmed to punish the female quite effectively (Millet, 1970, p36). The writer suggests that the function of class in patriarchy is dependent on how expressive the masculine supremacy allows itself to become in society. However, the writer states a paradox to this point. She states: while in the lower status strata, the male is more likely to claim authority on the strength of his sex alone, he is actually obliged more often to share power with the women of his class who are economically productive. Whereas in the middle and upper classes, there is less tendency to assert a blunt patriarchal dominance, as men who enjoy such status have more power in any case. (Millet, 1970, p36) The writer suggests that Western patriarchy are interested in concepts of romantic love compared to Eastern patriarchy, but this interest could be used to conceal the patriarchal nature of society. She states that it was a Victorian habit, for example, to insist the female assume the function of serving as the males conscience and living the life of goodness he found tedious but felt someone ought to do anyway. (Millet, 1970, p37) She suggests that the concept of romantic love can be used as emotional manipulation which the male is free to exploit (Millet, 1970, p37). This is convenient to both genders due to dominance gained by the male and the concealed realities of the female status and their burden of economic dependency. One of the main effects of class within patriarchy is to set one woman against another, in the past creating a lively antagonism between career woman and housewife. (Millet, 1970, p38) This is means that one envies the other security and prestige, while the envi ed yearns beyond the confines of respectability for what she takes to be the others freedom, adventure, and contact with the great world. (Millet, 1970, p38) Women have less investment in the class system (Millet, 1970, p38). This is due to women having fewer permanent class associations compared to males, also not many women rise above working class in personal prestige and economic power (Millet, 1970, p38) so women do not enjoy the benefits that higher class will offer the males. Usually the white male concedes the female to a higher status than the black male. However, due to white racist ideology being exposed; this has meant these ideological attitudes of racism has now changed to sexism. The writer states the priorities of maintaining supremacy might outweigh even those of white supremacy; sexism may be endemic in our own society than racism. (Millet, 1970, p39) Wider social, economic and political context This book was written during the 1970s which was during the second wave feminism. This second wave of feminism was focused on advocacy of womens rights, in particular equal pay, sex discrimination laws, right to contraception and the legalization of abortion. It can be argued that Radical feminism is opening out the revolutionary struggle in new areas we want control not only over the means of production but over reproduction. (London Feminist Movement, 2010) It is hard to imagine that these women were seen as sexual objects as well not even allowed a view. One of the campaigns was the personal is political. This is where women spoke out about constant sexual harassment, major crimes like rape, as well as being seen as inferior to men. Some important events happened during the 1970s. The Miss World protest in 1970 was significant due to women protesting against the objectification of women as judging women only on their looks is insulting. (British Library, 2014) In 1973, the first R ape Crisis centre was formed in England and Wales to provide co-ordination and support to affiliated member groups and campaigns and lobbies to raise awareness of the issues of sexual violence in the wider community and with local, regional and national government. (British Library, 2014) In 1975, the Sex Discrimination Act was made to render unlawful certain kinds of sex discrimination and discrimination on the ground of marriage and establish a commission with the function of working towards the elimination of such discrimination. (British Library, 2014) Also in 1975, the Employment Protection Act made maternity pay a requirement for employers and stopped employers dismissing when women get pregnant. (British Library, 2014) The Domestic Violence and Matrimonial Proceedings Act in 1976 allowed women to obtain a court order against violent husbands without divorce proceedings. (British Library, 2014) One of the positives that came from 1970s especially for feminists was that Margare t Thatcher becomes Prime Minister in 1979. (British Library, 2014) Authors motives Kate Millett book was one of the first second wave texts to use the term patriarchy to describe the different structures of male power. She believed that patriarchy controlled every aspect of womens lives from sexuality, family, etc.   She suggests patriarchy has the power to shape how women thought as well as how they lived their lives. (Hannam, 2006) Millet suggests that personal lives were affected by the state and by patriarchy, so this enabled the opportunity for feminists to challenge the divisions between the public and the private that was central to liberal political thought. (Hannam, 2006) However, Millett was criticised for being anti-male and maybe seen as radical feminist. Target audience The target audience of this document would be feminists. This is because the document supports feminist ideals even though to some feminists it can seem anti-male. This document allows feminists but any reader to understand her opinions and beliefs during the second wave of feminism as well as using the term patriarchy to describe different structures of male power which was not seen til Kate Millett wrote her book. Usefulness of document This document is useful because this book inspired a new wave of feminism which was revolutionary and radical enough to create change for the women who lived in this period. Without vocal writers like Kate Millett, women may have gained as many rights as they did during this period. It can be argued her book was controversial however, her opinion is praised and attacked but her text is used in women studies which means her aim to get more female literature into education succeeded. Though it can be argued that other feminist wrote the same ideals before Kate Millett, but no one was a bold as her when writing their opinions onto paper. Conclusion Sexual Politics still remains to be one of the founding pieces of the second wave of feminism. Many Feminists have continued Milletts criticism with their own opinions to feminism and society. This book will always inspire another generation of feminists due to passionate and boldness she puts into her book. Bibliography British Library. (2014) Timeline of the womens liberation movement. The British Library. Available from: [Accessed 19 January 2017]. Hannam, J. (2006). Feminism. 6th edn. Harlow, England: Pearson/Longman. London Feminist Network (2010). Womens liberation and radical feminism 1970-early 1980s. Available from: [Accessed 19 January 2017]. Millett, K. (1970) Sexual Politics. Urbana, IL, United States: University of Illinois Press.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

compost :: essays research papers

Compost is an easy solution to eliminating the waste that our environment brings, while at the same time, providing many benefits to us, and the environment. By using compost, it improves our plant growth by enriching the soil that it drinks its nutrients from. It helps us avoid buying soil amendments such as peat, bark mulch and bagged manure. Compost also loosens the heavy clay that is in our soil, while improving the capacity to hold water and adding essential nutrients.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Not only benefiting us, our involvement in making compost benefits the environment also. As if we already don’t have enough garbage filling our landfills, we certainly don’t need our yard waste to waste any more space when we can so easily handle it ourselves. Compost helps reduce the volume it could contribute to landfills. Why put it into the earth that way, when we can enrich it by turning our yard waste into a natural fertilizer? It also helps prevents us from purchasing pesticides and chemical fertilizers that could further damage the environment and the animals around us.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Compost is really easy; all that is needed is some fresh yard debris and rain. By yard debris, it includes the following: grass clippings, leaves, flowers, weeds, twigs, sawdust, eggshells and dryer lint. What we DO NOT want to compost is dairy products, meat scraps, animal fats, bones, dog and cat feces and diseased plants or fruits. These materials may attract dogs, rats or other animals. They may also develop an unpleasant odor during decomposition Weed plants heavily laden with seeds might be better left out of the compost pile if the compost is to be returned to the garden. Even though some seeds are killed during composting, there is the chance that some seeds will survive and create an unnecessary weed problem.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There are fast and slow methods of composting. The speed that compost forms all depends on the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, surface area of particles, aeration, moisture, and temperature. Controlling these factors along with frequent turning of the compost speeds up the process. The fast composing methods depend on use of turning units. They can create good compost in less than six weeks, depending on how the compost pile is managed. The materials for fast composting should be added in larger quantities than many small amounts. In the slow method, material may be added to the enclosure at any time.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

An Interpretation of Emily Dickinsons Poem I Felt a Funeral in My Brain :: Dickinson I Felt a Funeral, in My Brain Essays

An Interpretation of Emily Dickinson's Poem I Felt a Funeral in My Brain Emily Dickinson was a reclusive individual that was rarely seen by anyone outside of her immediate family and few close friends. This solitude emerges in her poetry in the form of doom and gloom depictions. Dickinson seems to have a fascination with death as if death is a friendly character rather than a horrible image. It has been stated that Dickinson's obsession with death was a sign to others around her and her readers that she was struggling internally. In the poem "I Felt a Funeral in My Brain" Dickinson seems to be describing a delusion of a person that is contemplating what will happen to him/her when he/she dies. This poem also seems to be an affirmation of heaven and hell and a personal battle within the narrator to come to terms with his/her own mortal existence. In the first stanza Dickinson describes "feeling a funeral in her brain". This could be a metaphor for her own personal death and the reference to "sense breaking through" tells the reader that only through death can a person ever understand and/or value life. This could be viewed as a retrospection on the narrators life and a telling poem about where she was at in her existance around this period of time. If this interpretation is justified then in stanza two the funeral proceeds with the narrator hating to be there as she/he says: "And when they all were seated, A Service, like a Drum- Kept beating-beating-till I thought My Mind was going numb-" This stanza shows that the narrator is still bored with the living world even in death. The third stanza continues the theme of a struggle between heaven and hell in the last line when the narrator states, "Then space-began to toll". This reference to a bell tolling, or time running out seems to suggest the impending judgment for the narrator. Heaven is discussed in the forth stanza and compared to a bell: "As all the Heavens were a Bell And Being, but an Ear, And I, and Silence, some strange race

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury :: Ray Bradburys Fahrenheit 451

Fahrenheit 451 Imagine a society where books are prohibited, where the basic rights made clear in the First Amendment hold no weight and society is merely a brainwashed, mechanical population. According to Ray Bradbury, the author of Fahrenheit 451, this depiction is actually an exaggerated forecast for the American future, and in effect is happening around us every day. Simply reading his words can incite arguments pertaining not only to the banning of books but to our government structure itself. Age-old debates about Communism are stirred by the trials of characters in Bradbury’s unique world. By studying the protagonist and main character, Guy Montag, and his personal challenges we can, in a sense, evaluate our own lives to insure that we don’t make similar mistakes. Fahrenheit 451 was written during the fifties, a period of mass paranoia, war, and technological advancement. The paranoia in the fifties was due the fear of Communism at home. People were afraid that their best friends might be Communists. This is also portrayed in the book; you are not sure until the very end if some of the characters are friend or foe. Many inventions of the fifties have advanced mirrors in the book. One might think that the author was trying to express how those inventions would ultimately resulting in the dumbing down of society. The television was coming about in the fifties and the four screen TV's in the book hampered the thought process so people would not think. While the book is definitely critiquing society and the government, readers are given many dominant themes to follow, and to find all of them requires several readings. The main plot, following Montag, illustrates the importance of making mistakes in order to grow. For example, at the very end of the book Granger (an outspoken rebel to the book-banning laws) compares mankind to a phoenix that burns itself up and then rises out of its ashes over and over again. Man's advantage is his ability to recognize when he has made an error, so that eventually he will learn not to make that mistake anymore. Remembering the faults of the past is the task Granger and his group have set for themselves. They believe that individuals are not as important as the collective mass. The symbol of the phoenix's rebirth refers not only to the cyclical nature of history and the collective rebirth of society but also to Montag's own resurrection as a new person.

Monday, September 16, 2019

The portrait of a real man in modern society

The portrait ofa real man in modern society Life has always made great demands on man and these demands change unrecognizably as years go by. For instance, all that was required of a primitive man was the ability to hunt well, whereas modern people have to combine different complicated roles. We live in a dynamically developing world where everything Is planned down to the minute. All the systems of todays society function together and men are just â€Å"cogs in the machine†. And yet these â€Å"cogs† must be flexible, intelligent and active. But on the other hand, our lifestyle offers some benefits as well.For example, meeting numerous challenges gives you the sense of achievement and raises your self-esteem. But If our world today Is so diverse, Is there a unified Image of the real man? This question troubles many people and a great number of them try to find an answer to it. To my mind, one of the most valuable qualities today is intelligence, which allows one to ful fil one's duties, get and analyse information and come up with effective solutions. But Intelligence alone Isn't enough to make a successful person. creativity and Imagination are quite Important qualltles ppreciated by todays employers.In such a highly-developed world as ours man should be capable of inventing new methods of doing routine things. That's why discovering your talents Is becoming more vital nowadays than ever before. Having an activity that you are good at can brighten up your life and, what's more, protect you from all the temptations which can attract idlers so much. Furthermore, they say, â€Å"A sound mind in sound body'. That's why all the qualities listed above are Inseparable from physical fitness. Many people nowadays attend gyms or work out by hemselves In order to stay fit and healthy.Another pastime which Is gaining popularity is extreme sports. Daring people go in for mountaineering, surfing, bungee jumping or other risky activities to see how far their l imits may go. However, this tendency isnt as admirable as It may seem, for many people put their lives at risk lust to fill the emptiness In their souls or minds with adrenaline. Speaking frankly, I'd rather they took up something useful for the society instead. Everybody knows that our world today is full of problems – global and local, major and minor, and people ith an active life position cant but think about the poor, the homeless and the disabled.The majority of us have understood the importance of charity, volunteer work and fighting against such social evils as alcoholism and drug addiction. To sum up, a real man should possess all the qualities which I have mentioned. In my opinion, one of the examples ofa real man of the 21 st century is Chulpan Khamatova, a gifted actress whose talent Is unique and lustrous. She Is also known for her unprecedented social activity which draws public attention to the problems of children with cancer.In the year 2006 Chulpan became a co-founder of a charity fund â€Å"Gift of life† which helps children suffering from oncological diseases. She manages to find time for charity work although the actress's profession Is extremely hard and , besides, she has three children of her own to take care of. Of course, not everyone can live up to todays expectations and it has always been a hard task to meet the demands of the society. No one is perfect, but we can try to develop all tnese good qualltles In ourselves, as ellow once put It, â€Å"All are arcnltects 0T Fate working in these walls of Time†¦ â€Å"

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Voluntary Active Euthanasia

Voluntary Active Euthanasia Carlene Lawrence Hodges University PHI 3601 OL3 November 19, 2012 Abstract This paper will discuss the benefits of the legalization of Voluntary Active Euthanasia (VAE). It will define the differences between Active Euthanasia and Physician Assisted Suicide, as well as the difference between active and passive. We will look at VAE from a legal perspective, with discussion about specific court cases that have set precedence in this matter. We will also look at it from a moral point of view; from a perspective of Utilitarian and Subjectivist principles, to show that VAE should be considered morally correct.Voluntary Active Euthanasia This paper will discuss the benefits of Active Voluntary Euthanasia (VAE). Although it is sometimes referred to as mercy killings, it is one of the most controversial topics in our world today. Many believe the right to live is one of the most important human rights. The right to die should be equally as important. First, we mus t discuss the difference between active and passive euthanasia. Active is the process by which a person is given something, such as a prescribed medication, to end their life, while passive is allowing a person to die naturally, not being given anything to help sustain their life.Second, we must not confuse VAE with Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS), as the two are quite different. With VAE, it is the doctor who administers life ending medications, with the patient’s permission, while with PAS, the patient is the one who ultimately ends their own life. It can be argued that there is no moral difference between active and passive, since the consequences, intentions, and actions are primarily the same. If medical treatment is withheld, allowing them to die naturally, this will prolong their pain and suffering, as well as that of their loved ones left to bear witness.It will also lead to large medical bills, which the families will be left to deal with. In an era where the cultur e is to provide rescue medicine, it is hard to decide what to do when facing end of life decisions for your loved ones. According to the Hippocratic Oath, physicians must â€Å"use treatment to help the sick according to my ability and judgment, but will not use it to injure or wrong them† (Friend, 2011). While the actual Oath has been rewritten many times over the years, to reflect cultural changes, it has the same essence. But, who decides what is considered as injuring or wronging them?One person may consider aiding in the death of another to be wrong, but the person dying may not. U. S. District Judge Barbara Rothstein (1194) wrote, â€Å"There is no more profoundly personal decision, no one which is closer to the heart of personal liberty, than the choice which a terminally ill person makes to end his or her suffering†. Assisted suicide and euthanasia have been worldly controversial for centuries. However, the first organizations created to support the legalizatio n of such were in 1935 and 1938, in Great Britain and the United States, respectively.Great strides have been made in the right direction though. Consider the case of Karen Ann Quinlan. In 1975, after mixing alcohol and drugs at a party, Karen become unconscious and slipped into a coma (Quinlan & Radimer, 2005). After months of watching their daughter suffer, being kept alive by machines, the family decided they knew their daughter would not want to live this way and requested she be taken off of the respirator. However, they quickly found out that their wish could not be carried out without a court order. They lost their first court battle in New Jersey Superior Court.They appealed this decision and ended up in New Jersey State Supreme Court, where by a unanimous decision, they won. Karen’s father, Joseph Quinlan, was names as Karen’s guardian, and was permitted to make all healthcare choices for her. Julia Quinlan, Karen’s mother, writes: The ruling gave patie nts and families the right to live each stage of life, including the last stage, with dignity and respect, and for medical institutions such as hospitals, hospices and nursing homes that would now be required to establish and maintain ethics committees.In addition, the Quinlan case led to the creation of the â€Å"living will,† sometimes called an â€Å"advanced directive,† which outlines the personal wishes of the individual in regard to â€Å"extraordinary means† to maintain life. (Quinlan 2005) In 1990, 40 states collectively passed laws allowing competent citizens the right to make living wills. These documents put the power back into the hands of the ill, by allowing their wishes and voices to be heard when they themselves are unable to speak.They instruct doctors to withhold life-supporting treatment and systems in the event a person becomes terminally ill. They can also instruct emergency doctors not to perform life resuscitating devices when a person has become injured or ill. It is the opinion of this writer and other proponents, like Compassion & Choices (http://www. compassionandchoices. org) that it become legal to include right to die choices like voluntary euthanasia. In ancient Rome and Greece, putting someone to death, or assisting in dying was acceptable in certain situations.For example, it was acceptable to put to death newborns with severe birth defects. It wasn’t until Christianity started developing in the West, that euthanasia was determined to be morally and ethically wrong. It was, and still is, seen as a â€Å"violation of God’s gift of life†. (Abdulkadir, Ansari, & Sambo, 2012, p 673). This is where the ethical debate inevitably ensues. Opponents mostly come from the medical profession as well as religious groups. They believe that medical providers should be more concerned with caring and healing then curing and the ultimate outcome.Legalizing active euthanasia could put too much power in th e hands of the medical professionals, allowing the ill to be easily swayed and opening up the option for many lawsuits from surviving family members who do not agree with the practice. Proponents reason that keeping someone alive with medications and medical instruments, when they would otherwise die is not sustaining a true life. Also, they believe that this is not a question of if someone is to die, but how much they suffer in the interim. The main concern of health providers should be to ease or eliminate pain and suffering.If we can accept that passive euthanasia (rejecting the use of life sustaining treatment) is ethically and morally correct, than we should also accept active euthanasia as well. Utilitarianism says that actions should be judges as morally acceptable or unacceptable based on increases and decreases in total happiness and/or misery (total meaning everyone involved, not just one individual (Barcalow, 2007). Using this as a guide, it can be determined that VAE wou ld essentially be reducing misery by allowing terminally ill, and sick to die nstead of suffering. Therefore, it would be morally acceptable. Let us look at VAE from a Subjectivism standpoint. Subjectivism claims that â€Å"whatever an individual believes to be right or wrong is right or wrong for that individual† (Barclow, 2007). Therefore, what may be morally correct for one person may not be for another. Under this principle, we should consider that if you believe VAE to be morally incorrect, that does not stand to reason all of society believes this as well. Let’s look at euthanasia another way.Merriam-Webster (2012) defines euthanasia as: â€Å"the act or practice of killing or permitting the death of hopelessly sick or injured individuals (as persons or domestic animals) in a relatively painless way for reasons of mercy†. In most states, where VAE is not legal, doctors are permitted to withhold medical treatment from a dying person, if that is their wish. While this is not considered actively administering life ending medication, it can still be considered actively allowing the person to die, if the treatment they are withholding would keep the person alive, even if only temporarily.When defending the case for active euthanasia, often the subject of our pets inevitably comes up. It is common practice when our pets become ill or injured, to put them out of their misery, we have them, as we say, ‘put to sleep’, or ‘put down’. You never hear of someone keeping their pet alive on life sustaining machines and medications. When asked why they chose to put down their pet, almost everyone answers with they couldn’t bear to see the animal suffer. So then why do feel the need to keep our humans alive? Currently there are four states in the U. S. hat have legalized active euthanasia; Oregon in 1994 by the Oregon Death and Dignity Act, , Texas in 1999 by the Texas Futile Care Law, Washington in 2008 by the Washin gton Death and Dignity Act and Montana in 2008 through a trial court ruling, Baxter vs. Montana. It is also legal in several European and eastern countries, such as Belgium, Columbia, and the Netherlands. It is legal in certain situations in Switzerland. In conclusion, using the Utilitarian and Subjectivism Moral Principles, should consider voluntary active euthanasia morally acceptable. References Abdulkadir, A. B. , Ansari, A. H. , & Sambo, A.O. (2012). The right to die via euthanasia: an expository study of the shari'ah and laws in selected jurisdictions. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 673+ Barcalow, E. (2007). Moral philosophy: Theories and issues. (4th Ed. ed. ). Belmont: The Thomson Corporation. Daniel, P. S. (2011). Speaking of the value of life. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal,  21(2), 181-199,6. Euthanasia (a) in Merriam-webster online dictionary. (2012, March 09). Retrieved from http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/euthanasia Friend, Mary Louanne,M. N. , R. N. (2011). Physician-assisted suicide: Death with dignity?Journal of Nursing Law,  14(3), 110-116. Doi Rothstein, B. R. (1994). Assisted suicide: Helping terminally ill. Knight-Ridder Newspapers, 12(10), 615. Mary, L. F. (2011). Physician-assisted suicide: Death with dignity? Journal of Nursing Law,  14(3), 110-116. doi/913146489 Quinlan, J. , ; Radimer, F. (2005). My joy, my sorrow. Cincinnati, OH: St. Anthony Messenger Press. Rachels, J. (1975) Active and passive euthanasia . The New England Journal of Medicine 292 78-80 Rachels, J. (2001) Killing and letting die. Encyclopedia of Ethics 2nd ed. 2 947-50 Steinbock, B. , ; Norcross, A. (1994). Killing and letting die. Fordham Univ Pr.

The Impact of Globalization and the Internet Presents Real

The topic of globalization has become a hotly contested debate over the past two decades. Indeed, the increased integration of international economies have led to costs to some and benefits to others. These costs and benefits are a result of three effects of globalization, that is, expanded markets, cheaper resources or a combination of the two. Firstly, from the business perspective, one effect of globalization is that of expanded markets. This means that a business that had previously only sold its goods domestically can start selling products to other countries and this can increase their profit potential.Secondly, another consequence of bilateral trade agreements is the access to cheaper resources. Until the start of the 1990's, the People's Republic of China was largely closed off to the rest of the world. Many companies in the United States produced their goods either domestically or in areas with slightly less expensive labor. When China opened its market to the rest of the wo rld, however, American companies were able to take advantage of the far cheaper labor.This is known as outsourcing. Cheaper labor contributes to cheaper costs, which in turn contributes to larger profits. Sometimes, but not always, this may also mean cheaper products and services. Finally, International development, as a consequence of globalization, arises out of a combination of both expanded markets as well as cheaper resources. A prime example of this is India. Before the late 90s, the information technology sector in India was largely in its infancy stage.However, coupled with an educated yet inexpensive workforce, foreign companies were able to start subsidiaries of high tech activities in cities like Bangalore. This technological know-how spread to local firms, who in turn grew as a result of expanded markets both in India as well as the rest of the world. More and more organizations are getting hooked into the Internet. They use the Internet to promote and sell their product s and services, provide customer support, deliver training, and share corporate information with clients, employees, and customers.Businesses have found that the Internet is a powerful tool to help keep their employees and customers connected. In Vietnam, many organizations know to take advantages of globalization and internet to manage their operations. However, to survive in a competitive environment, they must understand in depth the strategic planning with the support of two above factors. Strategic planning is an organization’s process of defining its strategy , or direction, and making decision on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy.In order to determine the direction of the organization, it is necessary to understand its current position and the possible avenues through which it can pursue a particular course of action. Generally, strategic planning deals with at least one of three key questions: 1. â€Å"What do we do? † 2. â€Å"For whom do we do it? † 3. â€Å"How do we excel? † With the aid of Internet, firms can use high technology to access the external situation analysis, supplier markets and labor markets. In addition, they can easily find the database of competitors on the internet to design the attractive policy and prices for their own companies.References list: Wheelen, T. L. , & Hunger, J. D. (2012). Concepts in strategic management and business policy (13th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Myatt, M. (2011). The impact of globalization on business. Retrieved from: http://www. n2growth. com/blog/the-impact-of-globalization-on-business/ Green , J. (2011). How Does Globalization Affect an Organization's Business Approach? Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness. chron. com/globalization-affect-organizations-business-approach-20077. html

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Critically Assess Geert Hofstede’s Use of Cultural Dimensions

ABSTRACT: Along with the trend toward globalization, communication across cultural and national boundaries has a significant effect on business. The Dutch management researcher Geert Hofstede’s work of culture dimensions is regarded as an approach to measure inter-cultural differences to business for scholars and practitioners. However, such a significant work does not escape criticism. Even though his theory consummates to six dimensions based on varies datum and is widely applied by many academics, McSweedney and many specialists assert his work as an absolute assumption.INTRODUCTION: Nowadays, the country boundaries are shaped by the spread of global communication networks and the development of transportation. Because of globalization, countries are tied closer than ever before. Since the beginning of 1970s, scholars such as Geert Hofstede started to notice the importance of cultural differences for many aspects of business life, in particular, when business related to com municate between people with different cultures. Hofstede (http://geert-hofstede. com/dimensions. html) claimed that â€Å"Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy.Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster. † Such conflicts are determined by the people’s perception which is partly the product of culture. Therefore, in order to avoid the conflict caused by culture, it is important to recognise cultural differences under global business environment. Hofstede’s cultural framework provides a guideline to recognize the differences between cultures and may improve the inter-cultural communication in business area. However, his work is critiqued by scholars and researchers as an unreliable framework.This essay firstly outline Hofstede’s cultural framework briefly and then apply his theory into practical situation to access whether it can improves the inter-cultural communication in the workplace. Afterwards, it will criti que the limitations based on the literatures opposite to Hofstede’s viewpoint. HOFSTEDE’S MODEL: Geert Hofstede’s work is ground-breaking and he himself is considered as the pioneer and pathfinder in inter-cultural study(Bond, 2002 and Sondergaard 1994). He described his significant research result based IBM employees’ attitudes and work-related values around the world.In the past 30 years, he persists to refine his theory from the previous four to six dimensions: Power distance, Individualism versus Collectivism, Masculinity versus Femininity, Uncertainty avoidance and Long-term orientation, and Indulgence versus Restraint (Hofstede et al, 2010). In his book, each country is evaluated by scores on every dimension, thus people can take an insight into the cultural differences by comparing countries’ scores. Power distance (PDI) is defined as that, to what degree people can perceive the unequal power distribution in a society.PDI scores, deriving fr om value of the less powerful people, indicate the level to which members accept power inequality. A low score demonstrates that members of the society prefer equality; whereas a country has a high PDI score means that people accept large power differences. Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV) is the dimension relating to how people ties to others within the community. Individualism pertains to societies whose members tie loosely and concern about themselves and their immediate family. On the contrary, in collectivistic countries people belong to strong and cohesive group.Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) refers to whether emotional gender roles are distinct or overlap. In masculine societies men are supposed to behave ‘assertive, competitive and tough’, on the contrary, women are supposed to be ‘modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life’ (Hofstede, 2010: 140). Uncertainty avoidance (UAI) related to extent to which members handle anxiety w ith ambiguous and unknown situations. Strong UAI Countries maintain â€Å"rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas†.Countries exhibiting weak UAI encourage practice than principles with a more relaxed attitude. Long-term versus Short-term orientation (LTO) deals with which kind of value is fostered. This dimension is based on Bond’s World Values Survey on â€Å"Confucian dynamism†. Long-term oriented countries foster virtues such as perseverance and thrift for future rewards, whereas short-term orientation focuses on rewards in the present and the past, which means particularly ‘respect for tradition, preservation of ‘face’, and fulfilling social obligations’ (Hofstede, 2010: 239).Indulgence versus Restrain is linked to happiness. An indulgent society permits ‘relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun’ (http://geert -hofstede. com/dimensions. html). On the contrary, restraint countries use strict social norms to control gratification of needs and regulates. Application As the world becomes globalized, to remain competitive and minimize conflicts which are the result of ignoring cultural differences, companies should not adopt an ethnocentric management mode to different cultural staff.To minimize these conflicts, many scholars and practitioners utilize Hofstede’s work of cultural dimensions as a means to narrow the cultural gap in business. One reason why his framework is widely adopted is that his data are collected from varies companies and the fifth dimension is based on ‘Confucian dynamism’. Thus, to access its practical applicability to decrease the negative aspect of cultural differences and to elevate cross-cultural communication level, it is important to apply Hofstede’s work into real cases.Since the late 2009, the famous Japanese auto-maker Toyota struggled into an unprecedented crisis due to pedal quality problems which led Toyota to its historical largest recall in the world. The Economist (Feb. 6, 2010) commented that safety recall is a common issue in vehicle manufacture but Toyota changed the order. In the process of managing crisis, Toyota acted according to Japanese culture without taking the American cultural values into account. It can be said that one reason deteriorates the normal recall cars to a crisis is the ignorance of cultural differences.Some literatures analyse the cultural aspect affecting the crisis and group them into two main points (Feng, 2010, Huang, 2010). Firstly, the Japanese management mode and organizational behaviour is different from American. As a result of the Japanese organizational culture, Toyota responded slowly after the accident. It is reported that on American time 28th August 2009, a Lexus ES 350 caused a fatal crash due to the gas pedal was stuck and the car was out of control (Los Angeles Tim es, Oct. 25, 2009). Yet Toyota did not respond to the accident immediately.US Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood said that documents show that Toyota knew of the problem in late September but did not give response until late January, moreover, â€Å"they knowingly hid a dangerous defect for months from US officials and did not take action to protect millions of drivers and their families† (Thomas, 2010). The second reason is the different communication behaviours between Japan and the U. S. A. In the American hearing and variety interviews, Akio Toyota, the president of Toyota Motor Corporation, spoke implicative, tactful and modest with a large number of modest words without any directly answers (Huang, 2010).In addition, Akio Toyota’s behaviours are understood as hiding the truth by American people. According to Hofstede’s framework, Western culture, represented by the U. S. A. , and such Japanese Eastern culture have significantly differences. The magnitude of the differences has been directly described in ways. See from the figure 1. 1. Figure 1. 1 Japan and the U. S. A It is obvious that there exist large differences between Japan and the United States. One of the most telling to explain the crisis can be the collectivist versus individualist dimension.The fundamental issue related to IDV is the extent of connection between individuals and the group (Hofstede, 1980). From the data provided by Hofstede, Japan, at a score of 46 on a scale of 1 to 100, is a collectivist society, whose group allegiances are strong, cohesive and invoke higher authority. The individuals adhere to the entity and preserve harmony. Thus the Toyota North American office was been called a â€Å"little safety deaf† by LaHood (CBC news, Feb, 2010). The North American office need invoked by the highest authority to handle the accident and the applicable proposal must pass through the whole company.Nevertheless, this system is not adaptable in handling probl ems in America. According to Hofstede, Toyota needs to handle the problem immediately rather than make a long-term agreement. Meanwhile, the high power distance (Japan 54) can be used to analysis the slow response. Japan is a more centralized decision country, and it is therefore all the command should be endorsed by the president of Toyota Motor Corporation, Akio Toyoda. Because only the CEO can respond to the allegations, the response to the event was hauled in respect to the stakeholders living in a country that has only 40 in the index.As mentioned before, the official recall and apologize came four months later after the car accident has been reported. Yet the stakeholders demanded immediate response to the accident from Toyota regardless from the CEO or other representative. Moreover, during the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee hearing, in response to why Toyota responded so slow, Toyoda claimed that do not answered directly but reiterates his plan to set up a g lobal commission to address complains more quickly (CNN Politics, Feb. 24, 2010).This phenomenon can adopt Hofstede’s fifth dimension, long- term versus short-term orientation to demonstrate the inevitability of this divergence. Hofstede himself defines long-term orientation as ‘the fostering of virtues oriented towards future rewards' (Hofstede 2010: 239), which means that high long-orientation scores countries (Japan 80) pay more attention to the things that will benefit the future whereas low score countries tend to focus on nearby benefits or rewards. Jealous writes, â€Å"In America, we ultimately judge people on what they are doing today for tomorrow, not for what they did yesterday. (CNN Politics, Feb. 24, 2010). In the hearing, American part were expected that Toyota undertake their obligations by providing continuous plans to the stakeholders. Akio did not account for this and responded indirectly to the solution to the current accident therefore caused Americ ans the disgusted and suspected feeling. Consequently, if Toyota can notice the cultural differences and adopt Hofstede's theory to handle the problem in their American market in the bud, the common recall would not exacerbate American people and became a crisis which will threaten its reputation. CRITIQUE:Culture is deeply rooted in many aspects of business life when people must interact with the people such as suppliers, buyers, employees or stakeholders. The case of Toyota crisis demonstrates that Hofstede’s framework of cultural dimensions is practical to uncover these conflicts in cross-cultural communication. If people could realize the cultural differences concluded by Hofstede and take proper communication style and management mode, the fate of Toyota might be changed. However, the framework cannot act as a textbook to interpret the whole cultural gap even in the case of Toyota crisis.Many intercultural researchers criticized Hofstede’s theory for not providing valuable guiding intelligence or regard it as absolute assumptions. Hofstede did not mention the impact of linguistic on the communication. Different languages and contents have objectively impact on the understanding of the conversation. Take the US-based 3M Company as an example. The company earns $7 billion per year in their overseas market, it become the â€Å"forefront of language instruction by sponsoring an in-house Language Society that provides linguistic and cultural support† to 3M (Frey-Ridgway, 1997).Freivalds (1995) said that the French firm Bull adopted the 3M model to train its employees in the competition of global marketplace and still in success. Language plays an irreplaceable position in the inter-cultural communication. Different types of body languages cause misunderstanding as well. In japan, apology needs humility, in order to be forgiven, Japanese usually avoid eye contact stands for rudeness, offend and provocation, but it would be decoded as disint erest, dishonesty and cunning in western countries (Huang, 2010, Dahl, 2004).Gudykunst and Nishida (1994:2) said that misunderstanding between Japan and American people often â€Å"stem from not knowing the norms and rules guiding each other’s communication†. In hofstede’s model, the data come from the English-speaking company IBM and it is aim to evaluate work attitude and value, this led his theory ignore linguistic and body language difference. Moreover, in the process of communication among Akio Toyoda and the American interlocutor, the stakeholders, the Congress representatives or the media people, misunderstanding occurred continually.As mentioned above, Toyota responded euphemistic to the problem (Huang, 2010). Akio repeated the apology several times and declined to give pithy answers to undertake the obligation and to interpret the information and plan for the stakeholders in the hearing (Clark ; McCurry, 2010). The answer type can be derived from the pa tterns of Japanese communication. Lincoln (1995) studied Japanese and found that due to the politeness cultural they reluctance to say â€Å"no† directly. Hall (1976) separated communication into High-context and low-context.The United States is a typical low-context communication country while Japan belongs to high-context communication. Low-context communication refers to the patterns of communication use explicit verbal to convey meanings, whereas high-context pattern draw heavily on context. This cultural difference is raised by Hall instead of Hofstede. Michael (1997) claim that literatures are lack of specific details and are concluded in broad behavioral terms. Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) classified cultures has seven value orientations which is more than Hofstede’s six dimensions and has somewhat different perspectives.Additionally, Dahl (2004) criticizes the theory is the result of very little data, especially from specific companies with limited num bers of questions. This indicates that culture can be separated into more dimensions and those national scores and ranks are not the exclusive guide to improve inter-cultural communications. From Hofstede’s (1980) research, Japan ranks in the middle level of Individualism versus collectivism dimension. Yet Japan is widely stereotyped as a harmonious society.Woodring (2010 cited in Jandt, 1995: 163) used the original Hofstede’s questionnaire to study Japanese students and found that students scored lower on power distance whereas higher on individualism comparing with Hofstede’s original sample. Woodring explained that the different scores might be the result of age; that is means, students may praise more on individualism and equality than the whole Japanese society. About 1990, youths 25 years old and under were named as shin jin rui (literally â€Å"new human beings†), who were described as â€Å"selfish, self-centered, and disrespectful of elders and tradition† by older Japanese.In the description from Hofstede suggested that the Japan is a group oriented and hierarchical country. However, there are evidences to show that the young generation seeks for egalitarian and individualism. This demonstrates that Hofstede’s research can lead to stereotype and this ought to be avoided. Furthermore, this study shows that cultural value is dynamic. Holden (2002) criticizes the â€Å"relative reliance† on Hofstede’s paradigm in the workplace. He points out that the data is outdated as it was collected before 30 years.Hofstede attempts to set a certain form of culture for people to understand specific cultures and he (Hofstede, 2010: 34) states that â€Å"cutlures, especially national cultures, are extremely stable over time†. This has been criticized as â€Å"functionalist ambition of measuring largely unquantifiable phenomena† (Gray and Maloory, 1998: 57). Hostede himself stated, â€Å"There is no such thing as objectivity in the study of social reality: we will too often to be subjective, but we may at least try to be ‘inter subjective’. As His data are come from the questionnaire made by a group of western people, as a result of this, the question are tend to reflect western culture which means Hofstede’s theory has its cultural bias. Meanwhile, there is a debate about what level of analysis is practical for the term â€Å"culture† to be a viable tool. McSweeney (2000) questions the classification of culture in Hofstede’s theory. Hofstede (2010: 10) stated that people are shaped by â€Å"certain cultural trains† from the same country. Although general cultural dimensions can be established at a cultural level, ndividuals may not necessarily reflect the national culture they belong to. Hofstede (1980, 1991) admits that using data from the level of country to analyze the individuals is not appropriate, and labeled it â€Å"ecological fallacy†. He (1991:253) affirms that national cultural level reflects â€Å"central tendencies (†¦) for the country†, it is, not practical to analyze and predict specific individual behaviors or events. Conclusion: Generally overview the assessment, Geert Hofstede’s use of cultural dimensions provides a measurable paradigm to attract people’s attention to cultural differences and contribute to the inter-cultural study.For those people who are involved in international commerce, culture is important for many aspects of business life, thus, if people go into another country to communicate with local company, changing the management process and practices to meet their values is essential. Concluding from the case analysis of Toyota crisis, Hofstede's cultural model indeed provides an effective reference to support better cross-cultural communication as it uncover the reasons of cultural conflict for people to apply appropriate method to minimize its nega tive influence.However, cultural dimension theory functions limited in small space as it is not perfect. It regards culture as a fixed concept and separates it by national boundaries is improper. The data is collected in several decades years before even it has been updated in recent years based on questionnaire in a specific group in international companies from a perspective of western people. Moreover, it narrows culture into six dimensions may potentially disturb the derived value prediction as certain context influences on the individual respondents.The inter-cultural communication conflicts exist no matter how much understanding goes both ways. In conclusion, Hofstede’s work of cultural dimensions is a supplement for supporting better inter-cultural communication, the bilateral respect of culture and positive attitude are the core to successful inter-cultural communication. Bibliography: Bond, M. H. (2002). â€Å"Reclaiming the Individual from Hofstede's Ecological Ana lysis- A 20-Year Odyssey: Comment on Oyserman et al. † Psychological Bulletin, 128 (1): 73-77 CBC news (Feb 2, 2010), â€Å"Toyota slow o react: LaHood- US Transportation Secretary criticizes automaker†. Available at (13 May, 2012) Clark, A. & McCurry, J. (2010). â€Å"Toyota boss offers ‘sincere regrets' for faulty accelerators†, The Guardian, Thursday 25 February 2010. Available at < http://www. guardian. co. uk/business/2010/feb/25/toyota-akio-toyoda-congress? INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487> (13 May, 2012) CNN Politics (Feb 24, 2010). â€Å"Toyota president testifies before Congress†. 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(1994), Bridging Japanese-North American Differences, Communicating Effectively in Multicultural Contexts Series, Thousand Oaks: Sage, p. 2 Hofstede’s website, available at < http://geert-hofstede. com/dimensions. html > (13 May, 2012) Hofstede, G. (1980) Culture’s Consequences:International Differences in Work-related Values Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations: software of the mind, 2nd Ed.New York: McGraw-Hill Hofstede, G. , Hofstede, G. J. & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures an d Organizations: software of the mind, 3rd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Holden, N. (2002). Cross-cultural management: a knowledge management perspective. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall Huang, Z. (2010). â€Å" —— â€Å" â€Å" † (From the perspective of inter-cutlural communication to see Japan-America cultural differeces—analysis Toyota â€Å"recall†). Journal of Huaihua University,29 (6) Jandt, F. E. (2009). An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global