Sunday, May 24, 2020

Performance of Pakistan Banking Sector - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 792 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/09/15 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? Banking industry begins to show signs of slowdown After witnessing a strong growth during last few years, the banking industry has now started showing signs of slowdown, as deposits, assets, investment and profitability of banking sector is on decline while credit risk, market risk, interest risk, NPLs and advances are widening. According to the assessment of the State Bank of Pakistan’s Quarterly Performance Review of the Banking System (July-September 2008), released on Thursday, due to deteriorating macroeconomic factors the performance of the banking system on asset quality and earnings has slightly declined. Banking industry deposit component witnessed a significant decline of Rs 124 billion or 3 percent during the third quarter of 2008. Therefore, the share of deposits in overall funding structure declined to 73. 8 percent from 76 percent in last quarter, the report said. The SBP revealed that profitability of the banking system remained steady during the quarter though return indicators that slightly declined due to higher provisioning and operating expenses. The banking system posted a before tax profit of Rs 20. 7 billion during the third quarter, translating into year to-date profit of Rs 82. billion whereas after tax profit stood at Rs 54. 9 billion in September 2008. The credit risk has somewhat increased since the previous quarter. The Non Performing Loans (NPLs) of the system increased by Rs 36 billion over the quarter. The increase in NPLs has been across all the banking groups except for foreign banks, the report said, adding that â€Å"the market risk profile of the banking system is also predominantly affected by the interest rate risk. † During the quarter under review total assets of the banking system slightly declined as the deposits base contracted. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Performance of Pakistan Banking Sector" essay for you Create order The Sept-08 quarter witnessed a significant increase in advances that grew by Rs 167 billion and their share in total assets inched up to 56. 1 percent, exceeding Dec-06 levels. Over the quarter assets declined by Rs 4. 2 billion to Rs 5,509 billion while assets observed strong increase of Rs 292 billion in Jun-08 and Rs 67 billion. March-08 quarter also reflects some slowdown in the banking sector, which has witnessed strong growth for the last few years. However, interestingly, the decline in assets in the September quarter is less than decline observed in the corresponding quarters of the previous two years, the report added. On the back of high inflation rates, which pushed the real lending rates into negative, the demand for bank credit continued to increase and the banks’ asset profile further shifted from investments to loans and advances, thus constraining the banks’ liquidity profile. However, key financial soundness indicators and results of the stress testing exercise suggest that the system by and large maintained its satisfactory performance as well as the resilience towards the major risk factors. The report said that withdrawal of deposits was largely made up by increase in interbank borrowings. However, on the asset side, loans of the banking system posted a strong increase of Rs 167 billion (5. 7 percent) while investment portfolio further shrank by Rs 94 billion. Resultantly, the liquidity profile of the banking system came under further pressure as the ADR (advances to deposit ratio) and liquid asset ratio further deteriorated and posed serious challenge of asset-liability management especially for banks operating with high ADR, it added. This situation was further compounded by a tight monetary policy that was in vogue, though later on relaxed during post quarter liquidity stress. Net infection ratio and NPL coverage ratio slightly deteriorated to 1. 9 percent and 79 percent, respectively, which though still remain within acceptable and ameliorated level compared with the situation that was prevailing in corresponding quarter of last years. The pre-tax return on assets declined to 2. 0 percent (2. 3 percent in June-08 and 2. 2 percent in CY07). Incidentally, this slight fall in overall earning of the banking system has also to do with the exceptional losses posted by a couple of banks. However the report said that though key financial indicators for the quarter under review indicate slight drop, by and large the banking system has maintained the momentum of satisfactory performance that it achieved during the recent years of strong economic growth. The indicators suggest that the system is well placed to maintain this momentum and is financially sound to withstand any plausible shocks in the key risk factors. The post quarter liquidity crunch, in particular, has signified the importance of prudent asset-liability management for the banks in tight monetary policy regime. The SBP said that despite slowdown latest interim post-quarter statistics on key financials indicate that unlike established trends of strong growth, the asset base of the banking system is likely to remain stable during the last quarter of the outgoing year. The SBP took a number of measures, which are expected to facilitate the sound operations of the banking system and incentivize the banks to rationalise their asset-liability profile and further improve their risk management capacities.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Why Marijuana Should Be Lgalized Essay example - 614 Words

According to archeologists, the cannabis plant was among the first crops purposely cultivated by human beings at least 6,000 years ago and perhaps even more than 12,000 years ago. It is considered by many to be one of the most resourceful crops on earth. It can be used for industrial, medical, and recreational purposes. Rather than waging war on marijuana users, this resourceful crop should be legalized and utilized. The cannabis sativa plant produces more protein, oil, and fiber than any other plant on earth. In fact, it can be used to produce more than 5,000 textile products ranging from rope to paper. Aside from being resourceful, it is also very nutritious. According to Dr. Udo Erasmus, hempseed oil is the most perfectly balanced†¦show more content†¦So the question arises again, why wont the federal government legalize marijuana? Since 1937, the US government has been waging war against marijuana users. So much time has been spent on mere drug offenders while rapists and murderers walk the streets raping and murdering. According to the Federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 70-plus million Americans have admitted to smoking marijuana at least once in their lifetime. It is a harmless source of recreation for millions of people around the world. It has also been proven that marijuana helps to relieve stress. Furthermore, there is absolutely no proof that smoking marijuana can make a person stupid or numb or affect a childs score on a test. Some believe that the legalization of marijuana would result in increased usage or act as a gateway to harder drugs. Marijuana is legal for adults in the Netherlands and statistics show that the number of Americans that use marijuana is more than double the percent of Dutch who have used it. Americans want their rights of privacy restored to them by decriminalizing marijuana. The war on drugs needs to come to an end. There are so many more important things that law enforcement officers should be focused on than cracking down on marijuana users. The most resourceful crop on earth, cannabis yields industrial hemp for canvas, oil, fiber, and paper among other things; a harmless medicine for very ill patients; and a

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Analysis Of `` The Breakbeat Poets `` By Langston Hughes,...

Think of a poet. Who came to mind? Was it Shakespeare, Langston Hughes, Ralph Waldo Emerson? What about Eminem or Jay-Z? They are both poets too, but in a different way. They go by the title â€Å"rapper†, basically a synonym for poet, and Hip-Hop is their form of poetry is. Kevin Coval amusingly says that rap â€Å"dusted poetry off, took it out the closet, put Js on its feet, and told it to speak to the people, all the people,† and that hip-hop saved poetry from becoming â€Å"classical music,† meaning that rap prevented poetry from becoming an old, out-dated art form and renovated it for the next generation (20). Coval’s book, The BreakBeat Poets, says the creation of hip-hop music was by â€Å"latchkey kids in the crack era, left to their own devices to experiment wildly and make language and art new and meaningful,† and goes on to say its purpose is to, â€Å"move the crowd, relate to the crowd, and save the crowd,† and Kendrick Lamar do es these things perfectly (18). Through the use of clever wordplay and rhyming skills mixed with great story telling, Kendrick is bringing rap music back to its â€Å"roots† while introducing a â€Å"style† of his own, which is why one can argue that Kendrick Lamar is the â€Å"savior† of the rap game and its listeners. Kendrick brings rap back to its â€Å"roots† by reintroducing the narrative aspect of old school rap. When rap was first taking off in the late eighties, one group in particular helped mainstream it, N.W.A. Consisting of Dr. Dre, Ice Cube, and Easy-E, this group

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Population Of Interest Used By Charles Georges County...

The community used in this project is Prince Georges County Maryland. The population of interest used will include African American Males and Females ages 18 and above. This project is about organizing a health fair in Prince Georges County in which the selected population was educated about health care outcomes for high blood pressure; diabetes and obesity. Majority of the populace who attended the fair were either low income residents or uninsured. Diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure is known to have increased risk of stroke and heart disease (Sowers, Epstein, Frohlich, 2001). Hypertension in African American population is considered to be highest across the globe as compared to white population. It is a silent killer as it†¦show more content†¦The major health problem selected for this project was hypertension (Harrison et al, 2011). It is identified as a cardio vascular disease risk factor such as dementia, chronic kidney disease, coronary heart disease, and stro ke (NICE, 2011). It can be missed easily, as in various instances it is asymptomatic as well as it is also known as a silent killer. The Hypertension is thought to be a disease of vascular regulation ensuing from arterial pressure control mechanisms malfunction (extracellular fluid volume, rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and CNS) that results in elevation of BP by means of enhanced peripheral vascular resistance, and cardiac output. There are 2 basic hypertension types. Around 90 to 95 percent of the individuals have primary hypertension which is linked with change in lifestyle as well as needs medical treatment. On the other hand, 5-10% has secondary hypertension which is linked with various other diseases for instance pregnancy, thyroid, and renal (Haslam and James, 2005). It is estimated that around 1 in 20 adults will have increased BP of 160/100 mmHg and above that results in either more than one predisposing aspects (Gemmell et al, 2006). Evaluation of the selected intervention: As the program will be conducted in the community health fair settings, therefore, the selected interventions in nursing include the following: The nurses need to examine the purpose and nature

Frostbite Chapter 22 Free Essays

TWENTY-TWO HORROR AND SHOCK CONSUMED ME, so much so that I thought my soul would shrivel, that the world would end right then and there- because surely, surely it couldn’t keep going on after this. No one could keep going on after this. I wanted to shriek my pain to the universe. We will write a custom essay sample on Frostbite Chapter 22 or any similar topic only for you Order Now I wanted to cry until I melted. I wanted to sink down beside Mason and die with him. Elena released me, apparently deciding I posed no danger positioned as I was between her and Isaiah. She turned toward Mason’s body. And I stopped feeling. I simply acted. â€Å"Don’t. Touch. Him.† I didn’t recognize my own voice. She rolled her eyes. â€Å"Good grief, you’re annoying. I’m started to see Isaiah’s point- you do need to suffer before dying.† Turning away, she knelt down to the floor and flipped Mason over onto his back. â€Å"Don’t touch him!† I screamed. I shoved her with little effect. She shoved back, nearly knocking me over. It was all I could do to steady my feet and stay upright. Isaiah looked on with amused interest; then his gaze fell to the floor. Lissa’s chotki had fallen out of my coat pocket. He picked it up. Strigoi could touch holy objects- the stories about them fearing crosses weren’t true. They just couldn’t enter holy ground. He flipped the cross over and ran his fingers over the etched dragon. â€Å"Ah, the Dragomirs,† he mused. â€Å"I’d forgotten about them. Easy to. There’s what, one? Two of them left? Barely worth remembering.† Those horrible red eyes focused on me. â€Å"Do you know any of them? I’ll have to see to them one of these days. It won’t be very hard to- â€Å" Suddenly, I heard an explosion. The aquarium burst apart as water shot out of it, shattering the glass. Pieces of it flew toward me, but I barely noticed. The water coalesced in the air, forming a lopsided sphere. It began to float. Toward Isaiah. I felt my jaw drop as I stared at it. He watched it too, more puzzled than scared. At least until it wrapped around his face and started suffocating him. Much like the bullets, suffocation wouldn’t kill him. But it could cause him a hell of a lot of discomfort. His hands flew to his face, desperately trying to â€Å"pry† the water away. It was no use. His fingers simply slipped through. Elena forgot about Mason and jumped to her feet. â€Å"What is it?† she shrieked. She shook him in an equally useless effort to free him. â€Å"What’s happening?† Again, I didn’t feel. I acted. My hand closed around a large piece of glass from the broken aquarium. It was jagged and sharp, cutting into my hand. Sprinting forward, I plunged the shard into Isaiah’s chest, aiming for the heart I’d worked so hard to find in practice. Isaiah emitted a strangled scream through the water and collapsed to the floor. His eyes rolled back in his head as he blacked out from the pain. Elena stared, as shocked as I’d been when Isaiah had killed Mason. Isaiah wasn’t dead, of course, but he was temporarily down for the count. Her face clearly showed she hadn’t thought that was possible. The smart thing at that point would have been to run toward the door and the sun’s safety. Instead, I ran in the opposite direction, toward the fireplace. I grabbed one of the antique swords and turned back toward Elena. I didn’t have far to go, because she’d recovered herself and was heading toward me. Snarling with rage, she tried to grab me. I had never trained with a sword, but I had been taught to fight with any makeshift weapon I could find. I used the sword to keep distance between us, my motions clumsy but effective for the time being. White fangs flashed in her mouth. â€Å"I am going to make you- â€Å" â€Å"Suffer, pay, regret I was ever born?† I suggested. I remembered fighting with my mom, how I’d been on the defensive the whole time. That wouldn’t work this time. I had to attack. Jabbing forward, I tried to land a blow on Elena. No luck. She anticipated my every move. Suddenly, from behind her, Isaiah groaned as he started to come around. She glanced back, the smallest of motions that let me swipe the sword across her chest. It cut the fabric of her shirt and grazed the skin, but nothing more. Still, she flinched and looked down in panic. I think the glass going through Isaiah’s heart was still fresh in her mind. And that was what I really needed. I mustered all my strength, drew back, and swung. The sword’s blade hit the side of her neck, hard and deep. She gave a horrible, sickening cry, a shriek that made my skin crawl. She tried to move toward me. I pulled back and hit again. Her hands clutched at her throat, and her knees gave way. I struck and struck, the sword digging deeper into her neck each time. Cutting off someone’s head was harder than I’d thought it would be. The old, dull sword probably wasn’t helping. But finally, I gained enough sense to realize she wasn’t moving. Her head lay there, detached from her body, her dead eyes looking up at me as though she couldn’t believe what had happened. That made two of us. Someone was screaming, and for a surreal second, I thought it was still Elena. Then I lifted my eyes and looked across the room. Mia stood in the doorway, eyes bugging out and skin tinged green like she might throw up. Distantly, in the back of my mind, I realized she was the one who’d made the aquarium explode. Water magic apparently wasn’t worthless after all. Still a bit shaken, Isaiah tried to rise to his feet. But I was on him before he could fully manage it. The sword sang out, wreaking blood and pain with each blow. I felt like an old pro now. Isaiah fell back to the floor. In my mind, I kept seeing him break Mason’s neck, and I hacked and hacked as hard as I could, as though striking fiercely enough might somehow banish the memory. â€Å"Rose! Rose!† Through my hate-filled haze, I just barely detected Mia’s voice. â€Å"Rose, he’s dead!† Slowly, shakily, I held back the next blow and looked down at his body- and the head no longer attached to it. She was right. He was dead. Very, very dead. I looked at the rest of the room. There was blood everywhere, but the horror of it didn’t really register with me. My world had slowed down, slowed down to two very simple tasks. Kill the Strigoi. Protect Mason. I couldn’t process anything else. â€Å"Rose,† whispered Mia. She was trembling, her words filled with fear. She was afraid of me, not the Strigoi. â€Å"Rose, we have to go. Come on.† I dragged my eyes away from her and looked down at Isaiah’s remains. After several moments, I crawled over to Mason’s body, still clutching the sword. â€Å"No,† I croaked out. â€Å"I can’t leave him. Other Strigoi might come†¦.† My eyes burned like I desperately wanted to cry. I couldn’t say for sure. The bloodlust still pounded in me, violence and rage the only emotions I was capable of anymore. â€Å"Rose, we’ll come back for him. If other Strigoi are coming, we have to get out.† â€Å"No,† I repeated, not even looking at her. â€Å"I’m not leaving him. I won’t leave him alone.† With my free hand, I stroked Mason’s hair. â€Å"Rose- â€Å" I jerked my head up. â€Å"Get out!† I screamed at her. â€Å"Get out, and leave us alone.† She took a few steps forward, and I lifted the sword. She froze. â€Å"Get out,† I repeated. â€Å"Go find the others.† Slowly, Mia backed up toward the door. She gave me one last, desperate look before running outside. Silence fell, and I relaxed my hold on the sword but refused to let it go. My body sagged forward, and I rested my head on Mason’s chest. I became oblivious to everything: to the world around me, to time itself. Seconds could have passed. Hours could have passed. I didn’t know. I didn’t know anything except that I couldn’t leave Mason alone. I existed in an altered state, a state that just barely kept the terror and grief at bay. I couldn’t believe Mason was dead. I couldn’t believe I’d just summoned death. So long as I refused to acknowledge either, I could pretend they hadn’t happened. Footsteps and voices eventually sounded, and I lifted my head up. People poured in through the door, lots of them. I couldn’t really make out any of them. I didn’t need to. They were threats, threats I had to keep Mason safe from. A couple of them approached me, and I leapt up, lifting the sword and holding it protectively over his body. â€Å"Stay back,† I warned. â€Å"Stay away from him.† They kept coming. â€Å"Stay back!† I yelled. They stopped. Except for one. â€Å"Rose,† came a soft voice. â€Å"Drop the sword.† My hands shook. I swallowed. â€Å"Get away from us.† â€Å"Rose.† The voice spoke again, a voice that my soul would have known anywhere. Hesitantly, I let myself finally become aware of my surroundings, let the details sink in. I let my eyes focus on the features of the man standing there. Dimitri’s brown eyes, gentle and firm, looked down on me. â€Å"It’s okay,† he said. â€Å"Everything’s going to be okay. You can let go of the sword.† My hands shook even harder as I fought to hold on to the hilt. â€Å"I can’t.† The words hurt coming out. â€Å"I can’t leave him alone. I have to protect him.† â€Å"You have,† said Dimitri. The sword fell out of my hands, landing with a loud clatter on the wooden floor. I followed, collapsing on all fours, wanting to cry but still unable to. Dimitri’s arms wrapped around me as he helped me up. Voices swarmed around us, and one by one, I recognized people I knew and trusted. He started to tug me toward the door, but I refused to move just yet. I couldn’t. My hands clutched his shirt, crumpling the fabric. Still keeping one arm around me, he smoothed my hair back away from my face. I leaned my head against him, and he continued stroking my hair, murmuring something in Russian. I didn’t understand a word of it, but the gentle tone soothed me. Guardians were spreading throughout the house, examining it inch by inch. A couple of them approached us and knelt by the bodies I refused to look at. â€Å"She did that? Both of them?† â€Å"That sword hasn’t been sharpened in years!† A funny sound caught in my throat. Dimitri squeezed my shoulder comfortingly. â€Å"Get her out of here, Belikov,† I heard a woman say behind him, her voice familiar. Dimitri squeezed my shoulder again. â€Å"Come on, Roza. It’s time to go.† This time, I went. He guided me out of the house, holding onto me as I managed each agonizing step. My mind still refused to really process what had happened. I couldn’t do much more than follow simple directions from those around me. I eventually ended up on one of the Academy’s jets. Engines roared around us as the plane lifted off. Dimitri murmured something about coming back shortly and left me alone in my seat. I stared straight ahead, studying the details of the seat in front of me. Someone sat beside me and draped a blanket over my shoulders. I noticed then just how badly I was shivering. I tugged at the edges of the blanket. â€Å"I’m cold,† I said. â€Å"How am I so cold?† â€Å"You’re in shock,† Mia answered. I turned and looked at her, studying her blond curls and big blue eyes. Something about seeing her unleashed my memories. It all tumbled back. I squeezed my eyes shut. â€Å"Oh God,† I breathed. I opened my eyes and focused on her again. â€Å"You saved me- saved me when you blew up the fish tank. You shouldn’t have done it. You shouldn’t have come back.† She shrugged. â€Å"You shouldn’t have gone for the sword.† Fair point. â€Å"Thank you,† I told her. â€Å"What you did †¦ I never would have thought of that. It was brilliant.† â€Å"I don’t know about that,† she mused, smiling ruefully. â€Å"Water isn’t much of a weapon, remember?† I choked on a laugh, even though I really didn’t find my old words that funny. Not anymore. â€Å"Water’s a great weapon,† I said finally. â€Å"When we get back, we’ll have to practice ways to use it.† Her face lit up. Fierceness shone out from her eyes. â€Å"I’d like that. More than anything.† â€Å"I’m sorry †¦ sorry about your mom.† Mia simply nodded. â€Å"You’re lucky to still have yours. You don’t know how lucky.† I turned and stared at the seat again. The next words out of my mouth startled me: â€Å"I wish she was here.† â€Å"She is,† said Mia, sounding surprised. â€Å"She was with the group that raided the house. Didn’t you see her?† I shook my head. We lapsed into silence. Mia stood up and left. A minute later, someone else sat down beside me. I didn’t have to see her to know who she was. I just knew. â€Å"Rose,† said my mother. For once in my life, she sounded unsure of herself. Scared, maybe. â€Å"Mia said you wanted to see me.† I didn’t answer. I didn’t look at her. â€Å"What†¦what do you need?† I didn’t know what I needed. I didn’t know what to do. The stinging in my eyes grew unbearable, and before I knew it, I was crying. Big, painful sobs seized my body. The tears I’d held back so long poured down my face. The fear and grief I’d refused to let myself feel finally burst free, burning in my chest. I could scarcely breathe. My mother put her arms around me, and I buried my face in her chest, sobbing even harder. â€Å"I know,† she said softly, tightening her grip on me. â€Å"I understand.† How to cite Frostbite Chapter 22, Essay examples

New Information System for Efficient Working of Monash Video Library

Question: Discuss about the New Information System of Monash Video Library. Answer: Introduction This report mainly focuses on the use of new information system for efficient working of Monash Video Library (Vasquez et al., 2013). In this report a brief idea of present business with its aim and objective, current business with gaps and opportunity is provided. Data with important information is mainly gathered and checked for developing a new information system and a logic situation is created for the proposed system (Alur, Henzinger and Vardi, 2015). Business Overview: The ultimate goal and objective of this organization named Monash Video Library is to create an information system for efficient operation of business and keeping a track of records of various customer for increasing the efficiency of a business process and to predict the choice of various customers and to build a pattern for a customer relationship (Alur, Henzinger and Vardi, 2015). The ultimate notion of this organization is to purchase various videocassette and to let it out at loan to various customers. This organization mainly uses old system for storing the record of various customers on the contrary the organization is now having problem in the matter of expansion of his business and it mainly requires developing a new information system which can be helpful in efficient management of records (Alur, Henzinger and Vardi, 2015). The ultimate problem that the organization is facing is the keeping the tracks of customer records and then providing suggestion in tracking the records of various choices of customer. The developing team and the organization has a gap which can create a problem for the developers for understanding the needs of the systems (Azar, and Vaidyanathan, 2015). With the help of new information system Monash video liabrary has achieved a leading position in the market (Azar, and Vaidyanathan, 2015). Data gathering and Analysis Gathering of organization data is needed for the successful implementation of the new business and adjusting is with the needs of the present business (Vasquez et al., 2013). Data of the organization is needed to be gathered for understanding the requirements of company and designing of information system. SDLC models mainly focuses on the upgradation of new information system and it needs to be surveyed for this particular organization. Enterprise Resource planning system can be considered as best for adjusting with the business operation of the firm. Records of various customer must be stored in the main server of the database of the firm and required data can be easily collected form the database for the ongoing process of individual business (Azar, and Vaidyanathan, 2015). Various tools like DFD, flowchart, decision table can be used for analysis of data after collecting it. After the successful competition of the business a report is made and it should be delivered to the project manager for providing a brief overview of the working of the system and various problem associated with it. It also focuses the development and needs which are mandatory for the developing of the system (Chitchyan et al., 2015). Logical Modelling Process This method is mainly used for capturing the functional needs of the business. Various pictures and diagrams are needed for proper visualization of data models and various process associated with business. It also helps in establishing a link between designer and developer and which can be proved beneficial for fetching the functional needs of an organization (Chitchyan et al., 2015). Fig: 1 Source: (Chitchyan et al., 2015) Data Modeling and Normalization For proper modelling of the system an entity relationship diagram is given below Fig: 2 Source: (Dennis, Wixom and Tegarde, 2015) The tables of the various database of the video library is given below: DVD (D_ID, SL_no, Category, Price, Title) Staff (S_ID, S_Name) Authentication (Username, Password) Borrower (B_Name, Phone_no, address, others) For improving the integrity of the data, redundancy is needed to be removed from its tables. To avoid duplication of data the column portion of the table is kept in normalized way (Dennis, Wixom and Tegarde, 2015). Feasibility Analysis Feasibility of the given project is checked with the involvement of the various stakeholders with the associated projects. It mainly emphasizes on checking the needs of various organization. Feasibility analysis mainly comprises of various viability like technical, market, business, management, economic and financial domains and also the viability of ongoing models. A proper SWOT analysis that is Porter can be proved beneficial for proper checking of various business cases (Dennis, Wixom and Tegarde, 2015). The various services and products offered by the organization and its various technology must be checked. A regular checking is mandatory as it keeps a track whether a system is becoming outdated or not and it also ensures that the designed system survives for a long time. Market requirement of various organization also needs to checked so that it gives out a clear overview of the competitors and present technology which can be proved beneficial which gives a clear idea regarding the cost of the deployment of the information technology. By help of innovation strategy the cost of implementation can be easily recovered within two years. It can be easily proved to beneficial for the correct implementation of the system (Hendrick and Kleiner., 2016). Functional requirement The ultimate functional requirement of an information system is creation of database, Login of admin into the system with proper authentication and it is the duty of admin to add up records and update them. The system must be enough efficient for providing the information regarding the defaulters. The system must be capable of generating invoice for the customer (Hendrick and Kleiner., 2016). Non-Functional Requirement Needs of some non-functional requirement must be properly satisfied for the successful implementation and it also ensures the capability of the system to provide customers details information as per the requirement. For preventing the misuse of data the customer information must be well protected. Members of various organization should have limited permission to access different systems. Data containing important information must reside in the central database of the system and it must be available to all the customers (Hendrick and Kleiner., 2016). Business proposed solution A form should be mandatory for the implementation of various information system and using that members can easily register into the system (Vasquez et al., 2013). Register members can only apply for video loan. A database must be used which contain the important information regarding the information of member and video/DVD. DVDs searches as enquired by customers can be easily with the help of an user friendly interface. Several buttons should during the designing of interface which will help the admin to get a print of the invoice and can check the due date of various DVDs (Pedrycz, 2013). Implementation Issue For the proper implementation of the new information system the development must have a clear idea about the database. The database of this organization must be well connected to all the branches and this process is considered as a bit difficult for its implementation. The various stakeholder combined with project must be checked for getting proper idea about the requirements. Various duties must be given to developer for the correct implementation of the project within the given expenditure (Pedrycz, 2013). Now if the knowledge of the developer is limited then it can have led to the non fulfilment of the requirement of various users (Pedrycz, 2013). Conclusion The above discussion relates us to the point that a market research must be conducted before the successful implementation and upgradation of information system. For proper development and clear understanding a brief overview of the business must be taken in (Valacich, George and Hoffer, 2015). Various models of data are needed to be prepared which can help developer in getting a clear idea about the development of the system. New data models must be prepared which could help the developer in getting a clear idea about developing system (Valacich, George and Hoffer, 2015). Various issues with implementation of the system is also analyzed for creating a solution to various risk associated with the plan and also checks the efficient implementation of the plan (Valacich, George and Hoffer, 2015). References Alur, R., Henzinger, T.A. and Vardi, M.Y., 2015. Theory in practice for system design and verification.ACM Siglog News,2(1), pp.46-51. Azar, A.T. and Vaidyanathan, S. eds., 2015.Chaos modeling and control systems design. Germany: Springer. Chitchyan, R., Rashid, A., Sawyer, P., Garcia, A., Alarcon, M.P., Bakker, J., Tekinerdogan, B., Clarke, S. and Jackson, A., 2015. Survey of aspect-oriented analysis and design approaches. Dennis, A., Wixom, B.H. and Tegarden, D., 2015.Systems analysis and design: An object-oriented approach with UML. John Wiley Sons. Hendrick, H.W. and Kleiner, B. eds., 2016.Macroergonomics: theory, methods, and applications. CRC Press. Pedrycz, W., 2013.Granular computing: analysis and design of intelligent systems. CRC press. Valacich, J.S., George, J.F. and Hoffer, J.A., 2015.Essentials of systems analysis and design. Pearson Education. Vasquez, J.C., Guerrero, J.M., Savaghebi, M., Eloy-Garcia, J. and Teodorescu, R., 2013. Modeling, analysis, and design of stationary-reference-frame droop-controlled parallel three-phase voltage source inverters.IEEE Transactions on industrial electronics,60(4), pp.1271-1280.

Monday, May 4, 2020

Project Finance

Question: Case study on Project Finance. Answer: Project Finance Project finance refers to the financing of infrastructural construction and industrial projects on a long term basis. The funding of the projects is based on the financial structure of limited recourse. The cash flow obtained fr4om the object is then used to repay the debt that was used to fund the project. The reasons why public-private partnerships (ppp) are common in project finance. Public-private partnerships are common in project finance because of the benefits that come with such partnership. In most cases, the projects are huge and can take several years to be completed. The projects always require financing that runs into billions of dollars. Considering the sizes of the projects and the amount of financial funding that is involved, most of the projects are owned jointly. Public and private partnership, therefore, tends to be common in the financing of such projects. The two partners consult each other in their control of the project. The joint ownership has the following advantages: Joint ownership allows for sharing of risk between the partners. The public and private partners would be able to share risks that may be associated with the project finance. It is always very tricky if a risk arises when the sponsors of project finance have pledged that they would guarantee the completion of a project. The partnership would reduce the cost involved. The two partnerships would jointly raise the total amount of money needed to alleviate the risk. According to (Puentes, 2016, pg. 41), Joint partnership of sponsors also allows sharing of ideas and knowledge. The exchange of ideas generates new skills that may be of great benefit in the financing and development of the project. Financial skills, as well as operational skills, can all be shared between the sponsors. The project may be so massive that it cannot be funded by a single private company or a single public institution. It is, therefore, necessary for the sponsors to join hands together and raise the needed amount of money. The partnership would enable the sponsors to raise the needed amount of money without any problem. A project site may also be immense such that a single sponsor may be unable to marshal the managerial capacity that is required. The partnership would hence enable the sponsors to share the managerial task. They would then be able to manage the project with ease. Greater commitment is likely to attract project lenders to release money with ease. The partnership between a public and a private sponsor is an evidence of significant commitment. (Fhwa, 2012, pg. 15), confirms that development of some projects may demand that the sponsors lease some of their assets. Lesser partners may not have enough assets that can be leased. However, sponsorship partners drawn from the public and the private sectors would obviously have the capacity of owning several assets of huge value. They would hence not face any problem when it comes to the leasing of some of their property. The task of project finance demands specialization of the highest order. There must be an availability of financial experts as well as technical experts. The lending firm would first assess the level of experts in place to judge the expected projects productive capacity. A sponsor would require engineers, financial consultants, accountants, lawyers, auditors and environmentalists among other experts. Such experts can only be withdrawn from the public sector in collaboration with the industry. Public-private partnership in project finance, therefore, makes it quite easy to access such experts and at reasonable costs. Risks Related to Public-Private Partnerships There is the need for identification of risks that may be associated with a project throughout its life to have a successful project. The identified risks must then be evaluated and managed well. A public urgency must address all the obstacles that may hinder the project from being successful. An available opportunity must also be used effectively to improve success. Public-Private Partnership in itself is a way of risk management. There are several risks that are associated with public-private partnerships. (Fhwa, 2012, pg 34), states that, most of the risks can be used to assess that the loan borrower can also be exposed to too. However, project finance is more prone to the risks. The case of project finance arises because the borrower doesnt possess assets that can be used as security. The lender will hence incur high losses if the borrower defaults to repay the loan. Lenders must, therefore, be very conservative when carrying out their calculations. The case will not be the same if the loan is secured because the associated risks would have been minimized. The recoverable resource is an example of the risks. The lender has to find out whether the amount of the resources can adequately cover all the commitments if the prices of the resources fall. However, the lender may seek revenue guarantee from the government authority if the development project is to the public for example infrastructure and generation of electricity. The other risks are as follows: Political will According to (Puentes, 2016, pg. 37), senior government officials must offer their support from the government must provide their support for the project for it to be successful. Such support must come from both the executive wing of the government and the legislative wing too. Lack of government commitment may lead to the withdrawal of the private partners from the implementation of a project. An agreement may be reached between the government and the private partner, but some government officials may simply block the allocation of funds meant to finance a project. The project may eventually be canceled. Such cancellation of projects arising from non-commitment from the government may make private partners shy away from partnering with the government again. Regulatory risks (Nettler, 2016), states that, regulatory risks arise when inappropriate project framework has been put in place. The government and the private partners should come up with clear regulations that are meant to govern the development of the project right from the beginning to the end. The government should not come up with restrictions of any kind once regulations have been agreed and put in place. Any further restrictions may be judged as non-commitment. Site Risk Several risks may arise from the site where the project is to be developed. The suitability of the place may prove to be a major challenge. The presence of archeological remains and unfavorable geological conditions may prevent the implementation of the project. The poor relationship between the government and the residents may also cause problems. The residents may become hostile towards the implementation of the project. Community relationship must, therefore, be taken into consideration before the implementation of any project in a given area. Successful Factors in Public-Private Partnership Selection of politically smart projects (Xhang, 2016), states that, it is important to understand the existing political environment before choosing a project. Despite the fact that the public would retain ownership of the project, the private partners also have control over the project. The partners should, therefore, come up with a project that would be supported by the majority of the political stakeholders. Such support would facilitate successful implementation of the project. The lenders would also be willing to allocate financial resources for the development of the project. Understanding the needs of the Private Sector The public partner should come up with projects that are in the interest of the private sector. The sector would never enter into a partnership to develop a project that they consider a threat to the public. Transparent procurement process Project finance involves an enormous amount of money. It, therefore, involves competitive procurement procedures. (Puentes, 2016, pg 22), confirms that transparency should be upheld during the entire process. Issues of corruption in during the acquisition process may lead to an abandonment of the whole project. The procurement process is a sensitive stage and should be carried out with maximum care to ensure the success of the project. Reference list GAO, 2014. Bank Capital Reforms: Initial effects of Basel on Capital, Credit and International Reforms. United States Government Accountancy Office Apra, 2012.Regulation Impact Statement: Implementing Basel III Capital Reforms in Australia. Basel Committee Fecility Barker, 2015. The Reserve Bank Application of the Basel III Requirement for Banks. Australian Reserve Bank Kevin Davis and Mark Lawrence, 2015. Australian Banking. Monash University Press iCreate, 2016. Basel III. Basel III Committee, 2016. World Finance on Basel III. Patrick Sabol and R. Puentes, 2016. Private Public Capital Good. Brookings Education Jonathan Nettler, 2016. 6 Risks of Public-Private Partnership.